Dr Dingle's Blog / weight gain

Gut Health and our Stomach pH.

Gut Health and our Stomach pH.

One of the most important factors in regulating our gut health, digestion and controlling our microbiome is the pH or acid level.

While often mentioned in terms of the stomach, the pH has a controlling role to play in the health of the entire GI tract from the mouth to the anus; changes in the “normal” pH anywhere in the gut can have major implications on the rest of the GI tract. The pH scale goes from 1, being very acidic, to 14, being very alkaline. The level in our blood and tissues should be constantly around 7.36, neutral, and the level in our GI tract varies from 1 to 8. We cover this a lot more in our book Overcoming Illness, which focuses on the role of inflammation, oxidation and acidosis in illness.

After initial breakdown by chewing, food is churned by the smooth muscles of the stomach and is broken down by hydrochloric acid and stomach juices (enzymes). The pH of the stomach is highly acidic, around 1.5 (1.0 to 2.5) due to the hydrochloric acid that helps to kill harmful micro-organisms, denature protein for digestion, and help create favourable conditions for the enzymes in the stomach juices, such as pepsinogen.[1] Not to mention sending messages along the GI tract that everything is working well in the stomach. If the pH is too high, say 3 or 4 (low acidity and more alkaline), then the system does not work and you end up with poor gut health, digestive and health complications. For example, premature infants have less acidic stomachs (pH more than 4) and as a result are susceptible to increased gut infections.[2] Similarly, the elderly show relatively low stomach acidity and a large number of people, more than 30%, over the age of 60 have very little or no hydrochloric acid in their stomachs.[3]

Similarly, in gastric bypass weight loss surgery, roughly 60% of the stomach is removed. A consequence of this procedure is an increase in gastric pH levels that range from 5.7 to 6.8 (not 1.5) making it more alkaline and, as a result, more likely to experience microbial overgrowth.[4] We see similar patterns in other clinical cases such as acid reflux in which treatment involves the use of proton-pump inhibitors[5] and celiac disease[6] where delayed gastric emptying is associated with reduced acidity and increased disease.

Unfortunately, acid reflux is often wrongly treated as a condition that involves the production of too much acid. It is, in fact, the stomach finding it difficult to digest the foods, most commonly as a result of not having enough acid to complete digestion. Medications (see my other posts) which further reduce stomach acid have serious and sometimes deadly side effects on health, the digestive process and the gut microbiota. Acid reflux affects about 20% of the adult population and is much higher in older people, which is consistent with studies showing lower stomach acid as we age.


[1] Adbi 1976; Martinsen et al., 2005.

[2] Carrion and Egan, 1990.

[3] Husebye et al., 1992.

[4] Machado et al., 2008.

[5] Amir et al., 2013.

[6] Usai et al., 1995.

Read more →

Antibiotics and “The War on Bacteria”

Antibiotics and “The War on Bacteria”

While antibiotics have been lifesaving, the over-prescription of antibiotics has sparked the evolution of drug-resistant strains of life threatening bacteria, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths each year.[1] The US Centers for Disease Control estimate that up to 50% of antibiotics prescribed in the US are unnecessary.[2] Unfortunately, the use of antibiotics is often prescribed for those groups who are more vulnerable to dysbiosis, including infants born via C-section[3] and in those born preterm, compared to term infants born vaginally,[4] potentially compounding the problems. Micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites cause many of the world’s diseases, yet only bacterial infections are usually susceptible to treatment with commonly prescribed antibiotics.

However, more subtle side effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiome are only just beginning to be discovered. Broad-spectrum antibiotics can impact up to 30% of the bacteria among the human microbiota, resulting in severe loss of species and function[5] and begins immediately following antibiotic administration. The effects can sometimes last for years after its cessation,[6] and may also lead to the total extinction of some beneficial microbial species. As few as three days of treatment with the most commonly prescribed antibiotics can result in sustained reductions in microbiota diversity.[7] A typical two-week course of high-dose antibiotic treatment, as might be used for an ear infection, can wipe out most of the beneficial gut microbes.

These antibiotic-induced changes in the microbiota have been linked to many disease states including increased infections, metabolic disturbances, obesity, autoimmunity,[8] and mental health conditions. Common outcomes of antibiotics the antibiotic-disturbed gut microbiota are diarrhea and infections with Clostridium difficile,[9] particularly in infants.[10]

Early life exposure to antibiotics presents the greatest risk of long-term damage to the gut microbiota and the more you take, the worse it is.[11] In young children, antibiotics may change the development of the “adult” microbiota, and not allow its normal maturation.[12] It has also been hypothesized to cause a delay in microbial maturation from six to 12 months after birth.[13] Early life exposure is also associated with numerous diseases later in life including IBD,[14] obesity,[15] and asthma, as well as the development of immune-mediated[16] metabolic and neurological diseases.[17]

In a meta-analysis of eight studies including 12,082 subjects, antibiotic use in the first year of life was significantly associated with two-fold (200%) increased chance of the child having asthma.[18] One study reported the use of antibiotics in newborns increased the risk of developing asthma by 24 times. Probiotics during the neonatal period were protective and reduced the risk by as much as 86% for childhood asthma for kids at risk.[19] Studies of mice treated with antibiotics in early life revealed altered microbial populations within the gut microbiota and consequently increased the susceptibility of these mice to asthma.[20]

Antibiotic use has also been shown to have long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behavior. Such use is known to alter the intestinal microbiome with subsequent changes in microbiota to gut-brain axis[21] and result in poorer neuro-cognitive outcomes later in life.[22]

Even treatment with a single antibiotic course was associated with a 25% higher risk for depression and the risk increased with recurrent antibiotic exposures to 40% for two to five courses and 56% for more than five courses of antibiotics. The higher the rates of antibiotic use, the higher the rates of depression.[23] Animal studies have shown that high doses of a cocktail of antibiotics induced lasting changes in gut microbiota associated with behavioural alterations.[24]

Animal studies of early life exposure to antibiotics show lasting immune and metabolic consequences.[25] Administration of low doses of penicillin to mice early in life increases the risk of weight gain and obesity and promotes lipid accumulation by altering the gut microbiota.[26] Mice treated continuously with low-dose penicillin from one week before birth until weaning exhibited higher body weight and fat mass in adulthood, although the microbial structure returned to normal after four weeks of antibiotics cessation.[27] There is also evidence of antibiotics playing a role in the development of IBD in children[28] and that antibiotic usage during the first year of life was more common in those diagnosed with IBD later in life.[29]

Antibiotics and pregnancy

In human studies, mother’s use of antibiotics during pregnancy is consistently associated with cow’s milk allergy,[30] wheeze, asthma,[31] and atopic dermatitis,[32] with the strongest association for antibiotic use in the third trimester of pregnancy.[33] A study of 306 children with asthma showed that mother’s use of antibiotics during pregnancy increased the risk by a whopping four times (390%).[34] Low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life in the offspring of mice resulted in lasting effects on gut microbiota, increased brain inflammation, and resulted in anxiety-like behaviours and displays of aggression.[35] Similar results have been shown for antibiotic exposure through breastfeeding.[36]

"Gut Secrets" the book

Gut health tour dates

Gut Health, Gut Healing Australia. facebook group

[1] Fleming-Dutra et al., 2016.

[2] Fleming-Dutra et al., 2016.

[3] Penders et al., 2006.

[4] Forsgren et al., 2017.

[5] Francino, 2016.

[6] Jakobsson et al., 2010.

[7] Shira et al., 2016.

[8] Francino, 2016.

[9] Ng et al., 2013.

[10] Rousseau et al., 2011.

[11] Fouhy et al., 2012; Tanaka et al., 2009.

[12] Bokulich et al., 2016.

[13] Ibid, 2016.

[14] Hviid et al., 2011.

[15] Azad et al., 2014.

[16] Metsälä et al., 2013.

[17] Arrieta et al., 2014.

[18] Marra et al., 2006.

[19] Zhang et al., 2017.

[20] Russell et al., 2012.

[21] Rogers et al., 2016; Tochitani et al., 2016.

[22] Russell et al., 2013.

[23] Lurie et al., 2015.

[24] Bercik, P. et al., 2011; Desbonnet, L. et al., 2015; Fröhlich, E. E. et al., 2016; Wang, T. et al., 2015.

[25] Russell et al., 2013; Cox et al., 2014.

[26] Cox et al., 2014.

[27] Ibid, 2014.

[28] Shaw et al., 2010;  Ortqvist et al., 2017.

[29] Shaw et al., 2010.

[30] Chu et al., 2015.

[31] Stensballe et al., 2013; Kashanian et al., 2017; Mulder et al., 2016; Murk et al., 2011.

[32] Timm et al., 2017.

[33] Zhao et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2017.

[34] Zhang et al., 2017.

[35] Leclercq et al., 2017.

[36] Kummeling et al., 2007.

Read more →

Gut health impacts all health conditions

Gut health impacts all health conditions

Your gut microbiome has an astonishing ability to keep you healthy or ill. The list of diseases that we know of that are linked to the intestinal microbiota grows every day and these diseases are usually complex in terms of both how the disease develops and complications. Having the right balance of good microorganisms in our gut and good gut health is not only essential for good digestion but also in the prevention of or reversing chronic diseases, including.

Poor gut health has been linked with a long list of illnesses including



Asthma and Allergies



Multiple sclerosis


Cancers (especially digestive cancers, i.e. bowel and colon and brain tumours)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease including SIBO, Crohn’s and Ulcerative colitis

Metabolic health

Metabolic syndrome

Cardio vascular disease

High blood pressure

Weight Loss

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 1

Depression, Anxiety and Stress

Skin health and ageing

Eczema, Dermatitis and Psoriasis

Immune system function including susceptibility and tolerance to viruses and bacterial infections like cold and flu.

Colic, Constipation and Diarrhea

Celiac disease and Gluten and lactose intolerance

Liver disease

Dental Health


The list goes on. For example, even in the area of mental illness we have conditions such as

Depression, Anxiety and Stress



ADHD & Autism

Focus and memory

Learning, mental productivity and cognitive decline. As well as controlling some of our needs and desires i.e. food cravings and appetite, our relationships and our social interactions.

These are all impacted by gut health. Because of the role of inflammation, oxidation nutrition and the many functions of the gut microbiome there is not a health condition that is not influenced by the gut microbiome either directly or indirectly.

Because of the multiple functions of the microbiota dysbiosis can manifest as many and multiple health conditions often termed comormidity or multi morbidity. It is not one disease it manifests as many. For example, large studies have shown the multi-morbidity of eczema, rhinitis, and asthma. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients will also frequently suffer from rheumatologic manifestations, liver multimorbidities and lung, namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma, bronchitis and other chronic respiratory disorders in the adult population, gallbladder disease, heart disease and associated morbidity and mortality, anxiety, stress and depression, as well as arthritis, psoriasis, and pericarditis. In one study of 47325 patients they reported 20 different immune mediate diseases associated with IBD including some of those mentioned above and celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.

This evidence strongly shows any health condition will have many layers of disease occurring throughout the body at any one time that are related but not connected at the time of diagnosis.


Read more →

Gut Health Gut Healing an Modern Perspective

Gut Health Gut Healing an Modern Perspective

Arguable the biggest health problem facing us today is gut health rivaling the current obesity crisis and tobacco smoking in its impact on our health. Every health condition is linked to gut health and gut healing either directly or indirectly through inflammation and oxidation. Historically every culture understood this and were involved in extensive practices of gut healing and even our own up until 60 or so years ago. The first thing health practitioners throughout history would do is to start to fix the gut.

Until recently the positive effects of the gut microbiome on our digestive system and health has been severely under rated. Wisdom of Chinese doctors from centuries ago, who somehow knew that the intestines were not merely a digestive organ, but the centre of health and wellbeing. Hippocrates was recorded as saying that all illness begins in the gut. Throughout history from the Egyptians till around 80 years ago medicine and the bowels were frequently mentioned in the same sentence and good health revolved around gut health.

Even today the nomadic Maasai tribes in Africa attribute most illnesses to the effect of “pollutants” that block or inhibit digestion. In these communities the plants are used to cure diseases served mainly as strong purgatives and emetics; they "cleanse" the body and digestive system from polluting substances.

With thousands of studies released each year the gut is known to play a major role in many health conditions including mental health issues, cardiovascular disease, allergies and asthma, autoimmune diseases, some cancers and even diabetes and weight gain. Many of these conditions which are now reaching epidemic proportions have been linked to a dysfunctional gut. Studies have shown a strong link between mental health issues including depression and what is called the gut brain axis. We also know the gut is the centre of our immune system and is strongly influenced by the gut microbiome. As a result the gut has a strong link with allergies and asthma. Peanut allergies for example are not caused by peanuts they are brought about by a dysfunctional gut microbiome.

Antibiotics and many gut medications used for controlling acid reflux have been shown to be devastating to gut health a healthy gut microbiome, as well as many of the chemicals we use around the homes and even the personal care products we apply to our skin. Even our activities either promote gut health and gut healing or harm it. Stress sends messages to the opportunistic (bad) microorganisms in the gut to tell them to start to take over from the good ones. Exercise promotes gut health and healing while no exercise or too much exercise does the exact opposite.

Fortunately, in animal studies we know that many of these conditions can be improved and even reversed if the gut microbiome is repaired. 50% of Parkinson’s Disease has been directly linked with poor gut health while improving the gut microbiome has been shown to dramatically improve symptoms.

The research also shows that while probiotics can be useful in gut healing, repairing the gut microbiome requires an understanding of what encourages a healthy gut microbiome in our diet and lifestyle as well as what causes a dysfunctional microbiome. We now know that all the healthy foods we eat, the vegetables, nuts, seeds, herbs, spices and fruit all feed the gut microbiome which then feeds us and looks after our health. All the studies on healthy diets from the Mediterranean to the original Japanese or the low inflammatory diet (DII) benefit us because they work through the gut to promote gut health and subsequently our health.

Read more →

Lifestyle changes can add 14 years or more to your life. Not drugs

Lifestyle changes can add 14 years or more to your life. Not drugs

Americans have a shorter life expectancy compared with residents of almost all other high-income countries despite the fact that they spend more money on their health care (pharmaceuticals) than any other country.

In this study adopting five major health initiatives—regular exercise, a healthy diet, moderate drinking, not getting overweight or obese and not smoking can extend your life by around 14 years. Each of the healthy lifestyles lowers your chances of getting one of the chronic health problems, such as heart disease and cancer.

This study shows that healthier lifestyles would reduce the rate of premature death from heart disease by 75 per cent, and cancer deaths by 50 per cent, the researchers estimate.

This study yet again highlights the need to focus on lifestyle and diet and not on the pharmaceutical model of health. While there is consistent evidence showing their role in extending life and the quality of life there is virtually no evidence to show pharmaceuticals extend life. However roughly 50% of the lobbyists in the capitals are from pharmaceutical companies.



Impact of Healthy Lifestyle Factors on Life Expectancies in the US Population.



Read more →

How many times a day should we poop?

How many times a day should we poop?

Most people have their own routine and go to the bathroom/toilet the same number of times per day and at around the same time. A person's bowel movement routine is unique to them, and is determined by a number of factors such as diet and what is normal for one person may be abnormal for another. However, stool frequency should be between one and three times a day. If you eat 2 or more times a day you should go at least once a day.

The poo should also be soft and easy to pass but not runny.

The three major ingredients in your feces are water, fibre and microorganisms. If you have plenty of these and still not toileting properly then there may be a physiological reason for low toilet frequency. If your central communication system, your spine, is not in alignment then you may also have some gut problems. I suggest you see and oseotepath or chiropractor. They are not just for back pain. Other critical factors which can have a big impact include the low level of physical activity and or too much stress. Stress can shut down the whole system so do not underestimate the impact it can have on your digestion.

Source. Gut Secrets


Read more →

Your plate colour influences how many calories women consume.

Your plate colour influences how many calories women consume.

What colour is your plate?

Plate colour has been shown to alter the amount of food consumption due to its environmental effect on food intake. This study was a crossover study conducted with 54 female participants aged 18–30 years of normal weight. The results showed that plate colour exerted a significant effect on food intake during the test days. The average total energy intake with red and black plates were around 1113.19  kcal and was almost 20% higher than with white plates (945.72  kcal). There were no differences between red and black plates. 

Another study found that individuals drank and ate less from red labelled cups and red plates than from blue labelled cups and blue and white plates, while another study showed reduced consumption of popcorn and chocolate chips when the foods were served on red plates.

But it is not just the colour of the plate. Other studies have shown colour to have a significant impact on food consumption including the colour of the of the plate, packaging, and of the surrounding environment.

Other factors, such as the presence of other people, location, portion size and time of consumption, appear to affect food intake and food choice. 

So choose who you eat with, where you eat and the colours around you carefully.


Impact of three different plate colours on short-term satiety and energy intake: a randomized controlled trial


Read more →

The Gut Microbiome. Old wisdom and new science

The Gut Microbiome. Old wisdom and new science

If I came home sick from anywhere as a child my mums first question was always, “have you been to the toilet?” I didn’t realize the significance of this until much later and I don’t think my mother even realized what she fully meant. Except that our poo is one of the best and of course the simplest signs of our inner health and therefore our outer health as well. Our poo (feces) can tell a lot about our health and is made up primarily of microorganisms, fibre other undigested materials and water. Living bacteria represent 80% of fecal dry weight. The regularity and frequency also tells you a lot about your internal operating system and the likelihood of you suffering chronic illness. Well, before it may even be diagnosed by modern medical systems. Luckily I learnt this lesson well. Around 2009 I was called over to see my mother as the doctors thought she was dying. When I arrived she was in a delirious state and getting worse. She hadn’t been to the toilet for 10 days in hospital and we were all worried about her. I went into town brought a vegetable smoothie and carried it back to the hospital. I was able to mix in some “super probiotics” (1 trillion) into her smoothie and later which she sipped through the day. The following day, less than 24 hours she had regained her composure. We repeated this twice a day for the week and she walked out of hospital. At this stage the nurses had cottoned on to what we were doing and were asking questions but did not want to take it past that.

Until recently the positive effects of the gut microbiome on our digestive system and health has been severely under rated. Wisdom of Chinese doctors from centuries ago, who somehow knew that the intestines were not merely a digestive organ, but the centre of health and well being. Hippocrates was recoded as saying that all illness begins in the gut. Throughout history from the Egyptians till around 80 years ago medicine and the bowels were frequently mentioned in the same sentence.

Even today the nomadic Maasai tribes in Africa attribute most illnesses to the effect of “pollutants” that block or inhibit digestion. In these communities the plants are used to cure diseases served mainly as strong purgatives and emetics; they "cleanse" the body and digestive system from polluting substances.[1] While studies of the great apes show they self-medication to control intestinal parasite infections and gut problems across Africa.[2] Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for example, swallow the leaves of certain plant species whole, without chewing to aid expulsion of certain parasites. Swallowing rough or bristly leaves increases gut motility causing expulsion of adult worms, which disrupts the nematode’s life cycle and likely reduces worm burdens.[3]


[1] Bussmann et al., 2006.

[2] MCLennan and Huffman, 2012.

[3] Huffman and Caton, 2001.


Dr Dingle's WA. Gut Healing Tour

Perth May 9


Bunbury May 29


Busselton May 31


Albany June 6


Read more →

A Pecan a day keeps the diabetes and cardiovascular disease away.

A Pecan a day keeps the diabetes and cardiovascular disease away.

A large amount of evidence has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and all-cause mortality.

In this study after 4 weeks on a pecan-rich diet the researchers saw beneficial changes in serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-β) as well as cardiometabolic disease. That is a significant reduction in the risk of diabetes2, heart attacks and stroke.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a leading cause of death worldwide, and is primarly caused by inflammation and oxidation. Within the past few decades, there has also been a dramatic increase in diet-related chronic diseases related to CVD risk, i.e., diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, in both industrialized and developing nations. The problem is only getting worse even though we spend more money on pharmaceuticals and the medical system than ever before. Increased production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and inflammation, are the leading causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia.

A growing body of evidence has shown that a high intake of nuts (all types) is associated with a reduced risk of CVD development, all-cause mortality, and mortality from diabetes. Indeed, a nut-containing diet also contributes to weight control and weight loss despite the large number of calories.

Bioactive compounds present in nuts, include essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals, fiber, and phytochemicals, have all been shown to reduce inflammation, improving vascular reactivity as well as fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity, and by lowering oxidative stress. Numerous studies have now shown that consumption of nuts is effective in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation. Other studies have shown frequent nut consumption is associated with lower concentrations of inflammation (CRP, IL-6) and some endothelial (the artery lining) markers in clinical trials. In a study of 5,013 participants, a greater intake of nuts was associated with lower amounts of inflammatory biomarkers. Subjects with nut intake of five or more times per week had a 20% nearly 20% reduction in inflammation compared to those who never or almost never consumed nuts. Pistachio nuts, for example, reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. Pistachio kernels have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties at lower doses than reported previously and decreased inflammation (TNF-α and IL-1β) in a dose-dependent way. That is, the more the participants consumed, the lower the inflammation.


But not peanuts and cashews

For much more information on how to reverse diabetes and cardiovascular disease (and all chronic illness) “Overcoming Illness” our latest book is a must read.




A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Diane L. McKay 1,*, Misha Eliasziw 2, C. Y. Oliver Chen 1 and Jeffrey B. Blumberg 1http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/3/339/htm

Read more →

Inflammation increses your risk of heart disease (and everything else)

Inflammation increses your risk of heart disease (and everything else)

Chronic inflammation is known to play a major role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related mortality. Various dietary components also have been implicated in playing a major role in the development of various CVDs and research has shown that whole diet and various dietary components have a direct association with inflammation. Consumption of fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce levels of inflammation. Increased adherence to healthier dietary patterns characterized by increased intake of plant-based foods such as fruit and vegetables, nuts, and whole grains and adherence to a healthier dietary pattern has been shown to help prevent and to manage CVD. An increased intake of polyphenols, anti-oxidants with ability to decreases oxidative stress and inflammation through scavenging free radicals, found in fruits, vegetables and nuts, has also shown to be associated with decreased risk of overall and CVD-related mortality.

While consumption of red meat has been shown to increase inflammation. In a recent meta-analysis, increased intake of processed meat has been shown to be associated with increased risk of CVD mortality.

The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) has also been shown to be associated with various chronic inflammation-related health outcomes such as cancer incidence, all-cause and cancer-specific mortality, respiratory conditions such as asthma and cognitive disorders. A recent meta-analysis from nine studies found individuals in the highest versus the lowest DII category showed an overall 40% increased risk of colorectal cancer.

In this study data from 14 studies showed a 36% increase in the risk of CVD between the highest and lowest DII scores and there was an increased risk of CVD risk and mortality of 8% for each one-point increase in the DII score.

Results of this meta-analysis support the importance of adopting a healthier anti-inflammatory diet for preventing CVD incidence and related mortality and a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased risk of CVD and CVD mortality.

We are running a course on Inflammation, the DII and inflammation for other aspects of our environment and lifestyle to celebrate the release of our new book "Overcoming Illness" which explains all the information behind inflammation and oxidation and how to reduce your risk of all chronic illness for Diabetes to Dementia.

Overcoming Illness the course

7:00 PM - 9:05 PM Tuesday 6th March 2018


Read more →