Dr Dingle's Blog / low self esteem
Some people are more likely to have health problems as a result of exposure to cosmetics and personal care products than others, even when the amounts of contaminants present are seemingly quite low. However, when the studies are done, the focus is on one ingredient and its exposure to a healthy animal fed a well-balanced nutritional diet. As individuals, we each have different levels of resilience and tolerance to toxic chemicals based on our genetics and our current level of health, nutrition and even lifestyle factors.
Susceptible groups include:
- The developing foetus
- Infants and newborns
- Pregnant mothers
- People who are already sick or immune-compromised
- Chemically sensitive individuals
- The aged
- Genetically susceptible individuals
- Lower socioeconomic groups
- Stressed individuals
… to list the obvious.
Asthmatics have particular sensitivities. Any chemicals, gases or particulates that cause irritation of the respiratory system’s mucous membranes will aggravate an asthmatic’s condition. Allergy-prone people who already show sensitivity to a substance with reactions such as sinusitis, hay fever, atopic eczema and other forms of atopic dermatitis are likely to react with heightened sensitivity to indoor air pollution. They may experience an aggravation of their allergies or develop additional sensitivities. The increasing number of people who suffer from 21st-century diseases such as chronic fatigue and multiple chemical sensitivities will also react to even very low levels of these chemicals.
Pregnant women, who may themselves enjoy robust health, are at risk because some of these contaminants pass over the placenta to the foetus. People under stress are more at risk because their immune systems are often not functioning at optimum levels. Other factors determining susceptibility include gender, genetic makeup, pre-existing health conditions and predisposition to disease, as well as lifestyle considerations such as work, diet and exercise.
There is little doubt that our kids have a greater susceptibility to toxic chemicals than we do. The younger they are, the more vulnerable they are. Every day we expose our children to hundreds of different chemicals in personal care and cosmetic products and yet remain puzzled as to why they get sick and why the rates of childhood asthma, allergies and cancer are higher than ever. Childhood leukaemia and brain tumours are leading causes of death of children in most developed countries and many studies are now showing a link between these conditions and increased toxic chemical exposure.
Sleep and weight
Obesity in another disorder linked with insomnia. Research shows that diets that are higher in saturated fats are more susceptible to chronic diseases and disorders which includes insomnia (Novak et al. 1995). This is an alarming fact as 20% of the population of the United States of American are overweight or obese (Patterson et al. 2004).
Many studies, including one spanning twenty years, have tested the hypothesis that sleep and obesity are linked and the majority of results show positive correlations (Gangwisch et al. 2005). Further studies, with over 500,000 total participants via meta‑analysis have supported obesity and insomnia in adults and children (Cappuccio et al. 2008). The trends of increasing BMI and reduced sleep hours appear to go hand in hand, along with sleeping troubles related to Sleep Apnoea often seen in obese patients.
This link between Obesity and the symptoms of its associated diseases demonstrates a common trend towards diminishing an individual’s peak performance. Obesity and many of the health conditions which result from it increase the lower productivity levels associated with lower mental and cognitive functioning.
Obesity is also a serious factor in poor sleep habits. In a number of studies obesity was associated with "reduced sleeping hours " (Ko et al (2007). Obesity, particularly abdominal and upper body obesity, is the most significant risk factor for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Patients with sleep apnea often experience daytime sleepiness and difficulty concentrating (Teran-Santos et al, 1999). Studies have also shown a strong association between sleep apnea and the risk of traffic accidents (Terán-Santos et al (1999). In fact, subjects suffering from sleep apnea were at a higher risk than those who had consumed alcohol to be involved in a traffic accident. This has major implications, particularly for overweight and obese workers using any form of equipment of driving vehicles.
This lack in sleep will then leave the employee going to the work already feeling tired, irritable and stressed, therefore making it difficult to concentrate, and highly increasing the chances of being injured or making a mistake which may put fellow workmates in danger (Lynch, 2005) It is situations like this, where the worker comes to work already feeling tired, that the employee is putting his safety and other's safety at risk.
Shift workers are known to be a high-risk group for obesity. In the current study population, rotating-shift workers showed a higher distribution of the highest body mass index compared with daytime workers
In a study of the brains of 24 participants after both a good and a bad night’s sleep. after disturbed sleep, there was increased activity in the depths of the brain, areas which are generally associated with rewards and automatic behaviour. It seems a lack of sleep robs people of their self-control and so their good intentions are quickly forgotten.
What we have discovered is that high-level brain regions required for complex judgments and decisions become blunted by a lack of sleep, while more primal brain structures that control motivation and desire are amplified.”
In other words: lack of sleep robs people of their self-control and so their good intentions are quickly forgotten.
On top of this, the researchers found that after being deprived of sleep, participants displayed greater craving for high-calorie junk food. The more sleep-deprived they were, the greater the cravings. A stufy of 13,284 teenagers found that those who slept poorly also made poor decisions about food. Similarly, a Swedish study found that at a buffet, tired people were more likely to load up their plates.
The link has even been made from poor sleep through to food shopping. A Swedish study found that men who were sleep-deprived bought, on average, 9% more calories than those who’d had a good night’s sleep. These results were likely the result of the poor decision-making. It had been thought that the tendency to eat more after poor sleep was related to the so-called ‘hunger hormone’ ghrelin. But the latest studies suggest that it’s simple self-control that is most important in causing the sleep-deprived to over-indulge.
Obvious symptoms of sleep deprivation constant yawning and the tendency to doze off when not active for a while; for example, when watching television, Grogginess when waking in the morning Sleepy grogginess experienced all day long (sleep inertia) Poor concentration and mood changes (more irritable).
Some of the physical effects found from long term fatigue are heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, gastrointestinal disorders and depression (Workplace health and safety QLD, 2008). A study conducted by Andersen involving rats also showed sleep deprivation affects the expression of genes related to metabolic processes, response to stimulus and signalling pathways (Andersen et al, 2009).
Numerous studies have shown that even a little bit of sleep deprivation decreases efficiency and increases risk of disease, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Sleep deprivation has been shown to negatively affect endocrine (hormones) and metabolic functioning as well as nervous system balance (Nilsson, et al., 2004). Sleep deprivation is associated with an increased concentration of cortisol plus other indicators of increased stress such as elevations in pulse rate, body temperature and adrenaline secretion (Vgontzas, et al.,1999). Sleep deprivation also appears to increase blood concentrations of certain chemicals called cytokines and C-reactive proteins (Irwine, 2001 and Vgontzas, et al., 1998), indicating an inflammatory reaction. The effect of unremitting low-grade inflammation may be to damage the inner walls of the arteries, which sometimes leads to vessel narrowing, high blood pressure, stroke, and heart disease (Irwine, 2001). During truncated sleep, your heart might have to work harder, constricting blood vessels and increasing blood pressure even more, which could conceivably result in a heart attack or stroke (Martins, 2003).
Sleep is as important to the human body as food and water, but most of us don’t get enough sleep. Insufficient sleep or disruptions to the sleep contribute to adverse health effects. Numerous studies have also shown that even a little bit of sleep deprivation decreases efficiency and increases risk of disease, including cardiovascular disease.
Initial changes to cardiovascular system from insomnia include hypertension, which is a potent co‑morbidity for other cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension has been linked to reduced sleep duration, with the highest correlation shown under 6 hours sleep per night (Gottlieb et al. 2006). However, associations have also been made between sleep of over 9 hours per night and hypertension and obesity. Furthermore this has not been supported at all in some studies and PPI in one older North American population actually showed a reduced risk of hypertension (Phillips, BOková and Enrigh, 2009.).
A study of 71,617 female health professionals found that sleeping fewer than five hours per night was associated with a 39 percent increase in the risk of coronary heart disease; even six hours per night showed an increase of 18 percent compared to sleeping eight hours per night (Najib, et al., 2003). In an analysis of data on more than one million people, the levels of nearly all forms of death were two-and-a-half times higher for people who slept four hours or less compared to those who slept between seven and eight hours on average
A study of 71,617 female health professionals found that sleeping fewer than five hours per night was associated with a 39 percent increase in the risk of coronary heart disease; even six hours per night showed an increase of 18 percent compared to sleeping eight hours per night. In an analysis of data on more than one million people, the levels of nearly all forms of death were two-and-a-half times higher for people who slept four hours or less compared to those who slept between seven and eight hours on average
Experimentally, sleep deprivation has been shown to negatively affect glucose metabolism and to enhance factors associated with Type 2 diabetes (Nilsson, et al., 2004). Research has also shown that people who experience sleep disorders were as much as three times as likely to develop Type 2 diabetes (Kawakami, 2004). Subjects in one study demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance for ten days after four hours of sleep deprivation (Spiegel, et al.,1999). It is also found that sleep deprivation can play a role in obesity. Sleep deficits bring about physiologic changes in the hormonal signals that promote hunger and, perhaps thereby, obesity (Spiegel, et al., 2004). One study found that after two days of sleep curtailment the subjects had reduced levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin and increased levels of the stomach-derived hormone ghrelin. These hormones are responsible for regulating hunger and appetite (Spiegel, et al., 2004). These hormonal differences are likely to increase appetite, which could help explain the relative high BMI in short sleepers.
Part 5 and more coming
I had a friend a long time ago that used to seesaw with her weight many times over the year. Whenever she got depressed or upset she would eat a lot of rich, high calorie foods that gave her some instant pleasure. Her favourites were chocolate, and Milo by the spoonful, straight from the can. Despite her reasons for binge eating, it didn’t bring any happiness and in fact contributed significantly to her problem. We need to deal with the beliefs that underlie the undesirable eating patterns as part of any dietary program.
Examining emotions and habits during a weight loss journey gives an insight as to why people overeat or have a hard time maintaining weight after losing it. The reasons given for overeating and excess weight gain often have similar root causes including boredom, emotional instability, and stress. Some of these I have already covered but the potential list is pretty long.
The major reasons for overeating include and our appetite includes
- Time of day (energy levels)
- low self esteem
- peer/social pressure
- media and advertising
- low price/convenient
- mental stimulation
- too busy
- Feeling Unloved
- Anxious or restless
- Angry or jealous
- Dissapointed or rejected
Or if there are real food cravings, it may require some mineral or nutritional supplementation. For example, some sugar cravings can be significantly reduced with chromium or vanadium supplementation. Sometimes more protein-rich foods need to be eaten.
Lets look at some of the main ones
Busyness and stress are often the underlying factors why we put on weight. One way or another it prevents us from doing what we need and know we should be doing. Too busy to exercise, to busy to eat right or buy the right food, too busy to take the time for ourselves, too busy. Woman are often so busy with looking after the family they constantly justify another little treat and poor eating to get them through another day. While both men and woman often become too busy around their careers. Taking a bit more time for ourselves and focusing on our health and healthy eating can make a big difference to our lives.
Emotional weight gain can be a major problem. Hence why any weight control program needs a lot of emotional support. To much weight on the mind can put on weight in the body. In a study of eating disorders in girls in the 7th to 10th grades, which also applies to us as we age, many of them reported an inability to distinguish between emotional feelings and hunger. Some of these girls were unable to distinguish between scared, angry and hungry and are able to lump all of these conditions together, which leaves them to overeat whenever they have an emotional feeling. This is no wonder if you look at how we use foods as rewards and distracters as we grow up. Often when we are feeling upset or anxious we use food as a substitute.
Energy lows can be a major appetite trigger, either directly or indirectly is the amount of energy you have. If you understand your daily energy cycles you can avoid many food cravings and not confuse your levels of energy with poor eating habits. Remember, they are just habits. Most binge eating for example occurs in the low energy times of late afternoon and late evening when energy levels are low. At this low energy time you are also more likely to feel in a low mood so the food further acts as an energy catalyst to get you out of that mood. Only the solution is only a short-term mood changer and often has a negative energy and emotional rebound effect. In support of this one study of dieters found that the average time at which relapse occurred was late afternoon at 4.34 pm, about 4 hours after their last meal when they were moderately hungry and their energy levels were low. The majority of cases for temptation and relapse were characterised by upset including anger and by depression or tiredness.
On the other side of the coin research is increasingly showing that how we feel is also affected by what we eat. Research shows links between depression and nutritional deficiencies. The research also shows that the deficiencies do not have to be excessive to depress the mood. So it can become a vicious circle of food-mood-food. Dieting and food restriction can also play havoc with our moods. In a review of dieters the research concluded that negative moods particularly depression increased eating amongst the dieters. In another study of people who were at least 30% over-weight and ate only a fasting supplement of 420 calories per day over a 10 week period, they most commonly violated their diets in the second month at a time when they were feeling fatigued. Using brain imaging machine when you fast or deprive yourself of food (as in a diet), your brain sees high calorie foods as being far more pleasurable. The cravings and temptation to eat unhealthily, will be far more intense. This is what they found in the short term, at least. It appears The orbifrontal cortex is responsible for how the brain perceives the “value” of a food—or how pleasurable it will be to eat.
There is no doubt the negative effects of low moods and energy have on weight management. For many people when these two are low up goes the weight. Fortunately, for the majority of people, physical activity is the most effective way to raise energy and reduce tension. It produces rapid and reliable results that can change moods immediately. Overwhelming scientific evidence shows that even moderate physical activity has the ability to increase your energy, unlike the energy drinks which actually make you feel more drained. In an experiment where one group was exercising by walking and a control group sat quietly reading over materials there was a significant change in mood that was significant and unmistakable with the walking group. Research has highlighted that 15 minutes of walking produces slightly more energy than 5 minutes but even 5 minutes of brisk walking has a significant effect. After just a 10 minute brisk walk there were still statistically significant effects 60 minutes later and 120 minutes later a week energy increase was still evident. A brisk walk therefore energises the person for somewhere between 30 to 90 minutes afterward.
In a study on unhealthy snacking researchers identified six distinct motives for snaking including opportunity induced eating, coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion, rewarding oneself, social pressure, and gaining energy. Sound familiar? While Enjoying a special occasion and opportunity induced eating were most important. For all reasons except to enjoy a special occasion, younger people reported a higher score. Women indicated a higher score than men on coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion and gaining energy. People who diet to a stronger extent reported a higher score for snacking because of social pressure, to reward oneself and to cope with negative emotions, with the latter also being related to a higher BMI.
Other studies have also made a link between emotions and snacking. One study showed movie-goers watching tearjerkers ate between 28% and 55% more popcorn both in the lab and in a mall theatre. Previous studies have shown that humans who play violent video games show clear signs of distress (ie, negative stress), comprising higher blood pressure as well as reports of less fullness and a tendency to prefer sweet food. Studies suggest that watching scenes of an action movie may cause distress, a condition that can increase food intake in the absence of hunger. One study found action and adventure movies also lead television viewers to eat more calories – but only if the foods are within arm’s reach. With action movies, people seem to eat to the pace of the movie. In contrast, watching an engaging comedy clip has been linked with decreasing tiredness, sadness, irritation, anxiety, and restlessness, while increasing relaxation and joy. Thus, watching a comedy clip may cause eustress (ie, positive stress), which, owing to its high rewarding property, may reduce an individual’s concomitant drive to eat. While another study found that female students ate less grams when watching a comedy program compared with food intake when watching a television (TV) documentary.
Our eyes lie
Another major factor in overeating is the supersize me phenomena. Portion size is a key environmental driver of energy intake, and larger-than-appropriate portion sizes increase the risk of weight gain. Unfortunately the size of food packaging and portions has steadily increased over the past 30 years and these super sized food portions play a major role in weight gain. Simply people who sit down with bigger portion sizes of food are more likely to be overweight and obese while those who maintain a small portion size lower their weight. Whether it is from our parents telling us to eat all our food on the plate or our hunter-gatherer starvation mentality once it is on our plate we tend to eat it and as a result over eat. For instance, one study reported that 54% of American adults generally claim that they attempt to eat until they “clean their plates”. Interestingly very early studies showed this when participants who drank soup through a tube drank less when they had visual contact with the soup than when they did not. Literally a person's eyes may influence how much they consume, leading them to be less influenced by physiological cues of satiation. As a result, their estimate of how much they have consumed and how full they are may have to do more with what they believe they saw themselves eat and less with how much they actually ate. In a study of fifty-one men and women were served lunch of different portion sizes subjects consumed 30% more energy (676 kJ) when offered the largest portion than when offered the smallest portion. Larger portions led to greater energy intake regardless of serving method and subject characteristics. In one study after a 3 month intervention subjects who regulated their portion size had a greater weight change from baseline to the end of the 3-month intervention period loosing 3.7 kg compared to 0.1 kg in the control group showing that portion control is effective to reduce body weight in overweight and obese diabetic subjects.
It is time to have a think on why we overeat and puts some steps in place. Simple strategies like keeping a food mood diary can help you identify any common factors in overeating. While serving food on small plates can make a big difference to how much you eat each meal. Time to downsize our meal sizes.