Dr Dingle's Blog / gut microbiome

Overcomnig illness

Overcomnig illness

Most people do not realise that the majority of the chronic illnesses we suffer from today are not only preventable but many are also reversible.So what better way to show you than individual case studies. But these are only a few of the hndreds and hundreds we have seen

Ann was diagnosed with systemic sclerosis at 24yrs and after 8 months she was totally able to reverse the condition. She is now 41yrs old.

Claire was diagnosed in 2009 as a type II diabetic suffering extreme cramps in my calves, feet, hands, abdominal muscles when bent over and in my neck muscles when yawning too hard. Night time was a nightmare – the worse one was when I had leg cramp ten times in one night, each episode taking up to 20 – 30 minutes to “walk off”. All her results are back within normal limits.

Robyn was suddenly taken ill in the in the early '90s and was diagnosed with everything from Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome to Fibromyalgia and became moderately depressed. She started changing her cleaning and personal care items and noticed small improvements. She eats no refined foods, avoids people and situations that don't have a positive input into our lives, including TV and newspapers. She meditates 20 minutes twice every day and goes to bed early and get up early ensuring a good 8-9hrs sleep every night. She now uses a treadmill each day, and can jog for 40 mins and hasn’t felt so good since that last day she played tennis 2 decades ago. She said she now feels about 40yrs old instead of 64yrs and is almost free from all the pain she endured for all that time. “Life is good (again)”.

At 61, Derek started to experience pain in my chest and was referred to a heart specialist and was told that my main artery was 75% to 80% blocked and another two were 30% blocked. He was told that although a good diet would help some, it was not possible to clear the blockages completely and he would require a stent. He made changes in his diet and lifestyle and a year later he went back for another stress test. His stamina and heart function were so greatly improved and his cardiologist could not believe it. The blockages were reduced to the point that they hardly registered at all. In fact, the cardiologist was so impressed he wanted Derek to talk to his team about what I did to get such amazing results. Derek is now 65 and says he feels great. “Peter’s book is filled with amazing information and is the first step to educating yourself”

At 65 Sam had shingles, sleep apnoea, 4 hours of ordinary sleep a night and acid reflux. After just one month of adopting an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant anti- acid producing diet and a few practices to help with his stress he felt like a new man. Still a long way to go he hasn’t felt this good in decades.

Rebecca was 16 and had almost every possible skin condition including eczema, psoriasis and acne. She was tired and because of her skin very antisocial. Applying some anti-inflammatory nutrients like aloe vera and green tea extract to her skin along with strong probiotics, prebiotics and foods to feed the gut microbiota Rebecca saw big changes in just 2 months. She also used low toxicity skin care products without parabens, phthalates and solvents and cut out sugar, sweets and processed food from her diet.

Belinda’s blood pressure was as high as 204/105. Yesterday it was 116/56. “Diet and drug companies are not overjoyed when I speak. I am 81 and the body is better now than 60 years ago”. The secret is she walks briskly 30 minutes a day and average 7,000 steps a day, eat five times a day (small nutritious portions) and avoid processed high salt and sugar, drink lots of water… lots of it. No sugar drinks. Belinda now talks to clubs, businesses and groups all over East Texas with a fun simple message of transforming to a healthy, happy life no matter how old or young you are.

Barry’s blood pressure recently shot up to over 220/110. He saw five different doctors. They all had the same answer: pharmaceuticals. Turns out the root cause was that I recently had an appendectomy, and during the surgery they had misaligned my C1 vertebra. Along with improved nutrition and a healthier lifestyle my chiropractor fixed me.

Amanda followed the program we teach and has one or two smoothies every day, supplements and off sugar and processed foods and within one month her blood pressure dropped more than 50 points, her psoriasis disappeared and she more energy than I had 20 years ago.

It is amazing what the body can do once it has the good nutrition and lifestyle factors to heal itself

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Controlling candida

Controlling candida

Candida has a high degree of resistance to many available drugs. In the case of candida it is not just candia on its own but the potential associations it has with other opportunistic species and how they work together to protect each other with a resilient biofilm. The most important feature of biofilm growth is the high resistance to antimicrobial agents. To deal with this the best options are to use multiple strategies.

The best approach is to eat more of the functional foods, herbs and spices on a daily basis which help rebalance the gut microbiome and eliminate the opportunistic specises like Candida. Aloe vera in both its crude and extract form has been shown to have positive antimicrobial effects especially against Candida species. Aloe has also been shown to be effective against some pathogenic specis including Salmonella gallinarum. One study investigated the effect of Aloe when consumed orally in patient suffering from an inflammatory bowels disease given at the rate of two ounces three times daily for a week was able to rebalance the regulating gastrointestinal motility and decrease stool transit leading to curing diarrhea.

Coconut oil and its constituent fatty acids have potent antifungal activity and have been shown to both inhibit the growth of and kill C. albicans in vitro (Kabara et al 1972). In mice, coconut oil effectively reduced colonization of candida across a range of doses (12 to 30%).

Herbs are rich in phytochemical constituents like polyphenols that possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. A number of natural products have been shown to be effective in controlling fungi growth including curcumin from turmeric. Trumeric, ginger and Xanthorrhizol, isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza a cousin of turmeric in the ginger family have been shown to be effective against multiple Candida species and other opportunistic fungi and as a treatment for the treatment of candidiasis. Garlic’s antibacterial activity has been first stated by Louis Pasteur; and there are also reports of its antifungal and antiviral activities.

Other herbs including Berberine has also been shown to have significant antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, and yeasts (Tan et al 2011). As well as extracts from Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds, Cinnamomum verum (Celyon cinnamon) bark, Carica papaya (papaya) leaves and seeds and sweet basil leaf herbal oils seem to be highly effective anti-Candida choices.

Disturbances of the bacterial community in the GI tract promote C. albicans colonization suggesting that the normal bacterial microbiota of the GI tract have an inhibitory effect against fungal colonisation and invasion. Lactobacillus spp. appear inhibit the growth and virulence of C. albicans by the production of hydrogen peroxide and organic acids, but not fully eradicate them. They may also exert some effect on the Candida through the immune system. Similar results have also been shown for supplementation with some fungal probiotics, such as Saccharomyces boulardii which compete with Candida species for gut space.

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Probiotics can reduce pain

Probiotics can reduce pain

Treatments for obesity have been shown to reduce pain secondary to weight loss. Intestinal microbiota has been shown to influence obesity and pain sensitivity.
Physiological pain plays a life-essential protective role, while acute or chronic pathological pain indicates a medical problem that needs treatment and imposes a medical challenge. Neurotransmitters, immune cells, and hormones have been demonstrated to contribute in pathogenesis of chronic pain.
Pain threshold is influenced by several factors, including obesity, which alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine functions leading to alterations in systemic physiology including an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications. Studies have demonstrated that obese humans and rats are more sensitive to pain stimuli than normal weighted ones.
Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between intestinal microbiota and diseases including pain disorders with probiotics having a positive effect.
In this study the mice taking probiotics had a significantly lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulation compared to their corresponding control. The results of this study suggest a protective effect of probiotics on nociception circuits, which propose a direct result of the weight reduction or an indirect result of anti-inflammatory properties of the probiotics.

source

Potential Nociceptive Regulatory Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01 (DSM 14870) on Mechanical Sensitivity in Diet-Induced Obesity Model

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/prm/2016/5080438/

 

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Mothers milk mycobiome (fungi) - not microbiome

Mothers milk mycobiome (fungi) - not microbiome

Compared to bacterial communities, the human gut mycobiome (fungi) is low in diversity and dominated by yeast including Saccharomyces, Malassezia, and Candida.Studies show they also vary substantially over time and even mice in the same or different cages in the same facility receiving the same feed and treatment also varied in their dominant fungal lineage. Similar results have been shown with humans.

During the last years, human breast milk has been documented as a potential source of bacteria for the newborn. Recently, we have reported the presence of fungi in breast milk from healthy mothers. It is well-known that environmental and perinatal factors could affect milk bacteria; however, the impact on milk fungi is still unknown.

Recent studies report the presence of fungal species in breast milk of healthy mothers, suggesting a potential role on infant mycobiome development. In the present work, we aimed to determine whether the healthy human breast milk mycobiota is influenced by geographical location and mode of delivery, as well as investigate its interaction with bacterial profiles in the same samples. A total of 80 mature breast milk samples from 4 different countries

This study found fungal communities (mycobiota) in breast milk samples across different geographic locations and the influence of mode of delivery. They identified a core of four genera shared across locations, constituted by Malassezia, Davidiella, Sistotrema and Penicillium which have been reported to be present in the infant gut. Our data confirm the presence of fungi in breastmilk across continents and support the potential role of breast milk on the initial seeding of fungal species to the infant gut.

Analysis of bacteria and fungi showed complex interactions that were influenced by geographical location, mode of delivery, maternal age and pre-gestational Body Mass Index. The presence of a breast milk mycobiome was confirmed in all the samples analysed, regardless of the geographic origin.

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Mothers milk mycobiome (fungi) - not microbiome

Mothers milk mycobiome (fungi) - not microbiome

Compared to bacterial communities, the human gut mycobiome (fungi) is low in diversity and dominated by yeast including Saccharomyces, Malassezia, and Candida.Studies show they also vary substantially over time and even mice in the same or different cages in the same facility receiving the same feed and treatment also varied in their dominant fungal lineage. Similar results have been shown with humans.

During the last years, human breast milk has been documented as a potential source of bacteria for the newborn. Recently, we have reported the presence of fungi in breast milk from healthy mothers. It is well-known that environmental and perinatal factors could affect milk bacteria; however, the impact on milk fungi is still unknown.

Recent studies report the presence of fungal species in breast milk of healthy mothers, suggesting a potential role on infant mycobiome development. In the present work, we aimed to determine whether the healthy human breast milk mycobiota is influenced by geographical location and mode of delivery, as well as investigate its interaction with bacterial profiles in the same samples. A total of 80 mature breast milk samples from 4 different countries

This study found fungal communities (mycobiota) in breast milk samples across different geographic locations and the influence of mode of delivery. They identified a core of four genera shared across locations, constituted by Malassezia, Davidiella, Sistotrema and Penicillium which have been reported to be present in the infant gut. Our data confirm the presence of fungi in breastmilk across continents and support the potential role of breast milk on the initial seeding of fungal species to the infant gut.

Analysis of bacteria and fungi showed complex interactions that were influenced by geographical location, mode of delivery, maternal age and pre-gestational Body Mass Index. The presence of a breast milk mycobiome was confirmed in all the samples analysed, regardless of the geographic origin.

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A short time between eating your last meal and sleep can increase your risk of breast and prostate cancer.

A short time between eating your last meal and sleep can increase your risk of breast and prostate cancer.

Our modern life involves irregular sleeping and eating patterns that are associated with adverse health effects. Studies have shown late eating habits and short periods between sleep and eating are associated with metabolic syndrome, weight gain and altering the gut microbiome and gut health.
 
This study of breast and prostate cancer patients and their controls in Spain found those sleeping two or more hours after supper had a 20% reduction in cancer risk for breast and prostate cancer combined and in each cancer individually. A similar protection was observed in subjects having supper before 9 pm compared with supper after 10 pm.
The effect of longer breaks between eating and sleep was more pronounced among subjects adhering to cancer prevention recommendations and in morning types.
Adherence to diurnal eating patterns and specifically a long interval between last meal and sleep are associated with a lower cancer risk, stressing the importance of evaluating timing in studies on diet and cancer.
 
source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ijc.31649
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Gut Health and our Stomach pH.

Gut Health and our Stomach pH.

One of the most important factors in regulating our gut health, digestion and controlling our microbiome is the pH or acid level.

While often mentioned in terms of the stomach, the pH has a controlling role to play in the health of the entire GI tract from the mouth to the anus; changes in the “normal” pH anywhere in the gut can have major implications on the rest of the GI tract. The pH scale goes from 1, being very acidic, to 14, being very alkaline. The level in our blood and tissues should be constantly around 7.36, neutral, and the level in our GI tract varies from 1 to 8. We cover this a lot more in our book Overcoming Illness, which focuses on the role of inflammation, oxidation and acidosis in illness.

After initial breakdown by chewing, food is churned by the smooth muscles of the stomach and is broken down by hydrochloric acid and stomach juices (enzymes). The pH of the stomach is highly acidic, around 1.5 (1.0 to 2.5) due to the hydrochloric acid that helps to kill harmful micro-organisms, denature protein for digestion, and help create favourable conditions for the enzymes in the stomach juices, such as pepsinogen.[1] Not to mention sending messages along the GI tract that everything is working well in the stomach. If the pH is too high, say 3 or 4 (low acidity and more alkaline), then the system does not work and you end up with poor gut health, digestive and health complications. For example, premature infants have less acidic stomachs (pH more than 4) and as a result are susceptible to increased gut infections.[2] Similarly, the elderly show relatively low stomach acidity and a large number of people, more than 30%, over the age of 60 have very little or no hydrochloric acid in their stomachs.[3]

Similarly, in gastric bypass weight loss surgery, roughly 60% of the stomach is removed. A consequence of this procedure is an increase in gastric pH levels that range from 5.7 to 6.8 (not 1.5) making it more alkaline and, as a result, more likely to experience microbial overgrowth.[4] We see similar patterns in other clinical cases such as acid reflux in which treatment involves the use of proton-pump inhibitors[5] and celiac disease[6] where delayed gastric emptying is associated with reduced acidity and increased disease.

Unfortunately, acid reflux is often wrongly treated as a condition that involves the production of too much acid. It is, in fact, the stomach finding it difficult to digest the foods, most commonly as a result of not having enough acid to complete digestion. Medications (see my other posts) which further reduce stomach acid have serious and sometimes deadly side effects on health, the digestive process and the gut microbiota. Acid reflux affects about 20% of the adult population and is much higher in older people, which is consistent with studies showing lower stomach acid as we age.

 

[1] Adbi 1976; Martinsen et al., 2005.

[2] Carrion and Egan, 1990.

[3] Husebye et al., 1992.

[4] Machado et al., 2008.

[5] Amir et al., 2013.

[6] Usai et al., 1995.

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Antibiotics and “The War on Bacteria”

Antibiotics and “The War on Bacteria”

While antibiotics have been lifesaving, the over-prescription of antibiotics has sparked the evolution of drug-resistant strains of life threatening bacteria, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths each year.[1] The US Centers for Disease Control estimate that up to 50% of antibiotics prescribed in the US are unnecessary.[2] Unfortunately, the use of antibiotics is often prescribed for those groups who are more vulnerable to dysbiosis, including infants born via C-section[3] and in those born preterm, compared to term infants born vaginally,[4] potentially compounding the problems. Micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites cause many of the world’s diseases, yet only bacterial infections are usually susceptible to treatment with commonly prescribed antibiotics.

However, more subtle side effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiome are only just beginning to be discovered. Broad-spectrum antibiotics can impact up to 30% of the bacteria among the human microbiota, resulting in severe loss of species and function[5] and begins immediately following antibiotic administration. The effects can sometimes last for years after its cessation,[6] and may also lead to the total extinction of some beneficial microbial species. As few as three days of treatment with the most commonly prescribed antibiotics can result in sustained reductions in microbiota diversity.[7] A typical two-week course of high-dose antibiotic treatment, as might be used for an ear infection, can wipe out most of the beneficial gut microbes.

These antibiotic-induced changes in the microbiota have been linked to many disease states including increased infections, metabolic disturbances, obesity, autoimmunity,[8] and mental health conditions. Common outcomes of antibiotics the antibiotic-disturbed gut microbiota are diarrhea and infections with Clostridium difficile,[9] particularly in infants.[10]

Early life exposure to antibiotics presents the greatest risk of long-term damage to the gut microbiota and the more you take, the worse it is.[11] In young children, antibiotics may change the development of the “adult” microbiota, and not allow its normal maturation.[12] It has also been hypothesized to cause a delay in microbial maturation from six to 12 months after birth.[13] Early life exposure is also associated with numerous diseases later in life including IBD,[14] obesity,[15] and asthma, as well as the development of immune-mediated[16] metabolic and neurological diseases.[17]

In a meta-analysis of eight studies including 12,082 subjects, antibiotic use in the first year of life was significantly associated with two-fold (200%) increased chance of the child having asthma.[18] One study reported the use of antibiotics in newborns increased the risk of developing asthma by 24 times. Probiotics during the neonatal period were protective and reduced the risk by as much as 86% for childhood asthma for kids at risk.[19] Studies of mice treated with antibiotics in early life revealed altered microbial populations within the gut microbiota and consequently increased the susceptibility of these mice to asthma.[20]

Antibiotic use has also been shown to have long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behavior. Such use is known to alter the intestinal microbiome with subsequent changes in microbiota to gut-brain axis[21] and result in poorer neuro-cognitive outcomes later in life.[22]

Even treatment with a single antibiotic course was associated with a 25% higher risk for depression and the risk increased with recurrent antibiotic exposures to 40% for two to five courses and 56% for more than five courses of antibiotics. The higher the rates of antibiotic use, the higher the rates of depression.[23] Animal studies have shown that high doses of a cocktail of antibiotics induced lasting changes in gut microbiota associated with behavioural alterations.[24]

Animal studies of early life exposure to antibiotics show lasting immune and metabolic consequences.[25] Administration of low doses of penicillin to mice early in life increases the risk of weight gain and obesity and promotes lipid accumulation by altering the gut microbiota.[26] Mice treated continuously with low-dose penicillin from one week before birth until weaning exhibited higher body weight and fat mass in adulthood, although the microbial structure returned to normal after four weeks of antibiotics cessation.[27] There is also evidence of antibiotics playing a role in the development of IBD in children[28] and that antibiotic usage during the first year of life was more common in those diagnosed with IBD later in life.[29]

Antibiotics and pregnancy

In human studies, mother’s use of antibiotics during pregnancy is consistently associated with cow’s milk allergy,[30] wheeze, asthma,[31] and atopic dermatitis,[32] with the strongest association for antibiotic use in the third trimester of pregnancy.[33] A study of 306 children with asthma showed that mother’s use of antibiotics during pregnancy increased the risk by a whopping four times (390%).[34] Low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life in the offspring of mice resulted in lasting effects on gut microbiota, increased brain inflammation, and resulted in anxiety-like behaviours and displays of aggression.[35] Similar results have been shown for antibiotic exposure through breastfeeding.[36]

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[1] Fleming-Dutra et al., 2016.

[2] Fleming-Dutra et al., 2016.

[3] Penders et al., 2006.

[4] Forsgren et al., 2017.

[5] Francino, 2016.

[6] Jakobsson et al., 2010.

[7] Shira et al., 2016.

[8] Francino, 2016.

[9] Ng et al., 2013.

[10] Rousseau et al., 2011.

[11] Fouhy et al., 2012; Tanaka et al., 2009.

[12] Bokulich et al., 2016.

[13] Ibid, 2016.

[14] Hviid et al., 2011.

[15] Azad et al., 2014.

[16] Metsälä et al., 2013.

[17] Arrieta et al., 2014.

[18] Marra et al., 2006.

[19] Zhang et al., 2017.

[20] Russell et al., 2012.

[21] Rogers et al., 2016; Tochitani et al., 2016.

[22] Russell et al., 2013.

[23] Lurie et al., 2015.

[24] Bercik, P. et al., 2011; Desbonnet, L. et al., 2015; Fröhlich, E. E. et al., 2016; Wang, T. et al., 2015.

[25] Russell et al., 2013; Cox et al., 2014.

[26] Cox et al., 2014.

[27] Ibid, 2014.

[28] Shaw et al., 2010;  Ortqvist et al., 2017.

[29] Shaw et al., 2010.

[30] Chu et al., 2015.

[31] Stensballe et al., 2013; Kashanian et al., 2017; Mulder et al., 2016; Murk et al., 2011.

[32] Timm et al., 2017.

[33] Zhao et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2017.

[34] Zhang et al., 2017.

[35] Leclercq et al., 2017.

[36] Kummeling et al., 2007.

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Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and increased illness

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and increased illness

The human stomach, when healthy, is not a suitable host for micro-organisms, but in pathological conditions such as gastritis, when gastric acid secretion is impaired, microbial overgrowth can be observed. The use of gastric acid suppression drugs has been shown to have profound effects on the microbiome.[1] Acid-blocking drugs, or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) used for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) to reduce gastric acid secretion, are among the most commonly prescribed medications in the world with approximately 6%–15% of the general population receiving acid suppression therapy.[2] Once initiated, they are often used for long periods of time without question,[3] despite the guidelines saying “for short term use only.”

PPIs increase the stomach pH to make it less acidic,[4] which is what they are designed to do, and as a result, change the composition of the intestinal microbiota[5] and impact the pH of the rest of the gut. They are associated with a decrease in small bowel beneficial Bifidobacteria and increase in the toxic gram-negative bacteria, as well as being associated with a significant decline in microbial diversity within seven days of beginning therapy.[6]

PPIs dramatically increase the risk of stomach bacterial overgrowth (SBO) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), with increased risk of these bacteria getting into the blood[7] and the potentially fatal infection, Clostridium difficile.[8] Bifidobacteriaceae, important and beneficial bacteria of human gastrointestinal microbiota, can over-colonise the stomach of people with low stomach acid. Bifidobacteriaceae species, typically found in the oral cavity, readily colonise the low acid stomach[9] and become good bacteria but in the wrong place as a result of altered pH.

Proton pump inhibitors also promote progression of both alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice and contribute to the increasing incidence of chronic liver disease as a result of dysbiosis.[10] The list of side effects for PPIs is extensive, serious and even life-threatening and they are all mediated through the gut.

A growing number of studies are showing connections between autoimmune conditions linked with dysbiosis, including antibiotics and the use of protein pump inhibitors (PPIs) in controlling gastric reflux.[11] The use of PPIs can potentially create far greater problems in the long run.

 

[1] Krezalek et al., 2016; Mackenzie et al., 2017.

[2] Johansen et al., 2014.

[3] Reimer and Bytzer, 2009.

[4] O’May et al., 2005.

[5] Bajaj et al., 2014; Imhann et al., 2016; Jackson et al., 2016.

[6] Seto et al., 2014; Wallace et al., 2011.

[7] Choung et al., 2011.

[8] Lo and Chan, 2013; Janarthanan et al., 2012.

[9] Mattarelli, 2014.

[10] Llorente et al., 2017; Reveles et al., 2017.

[11] Andresson et al., 2016.

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Gut Dysbiosis. A dysfunctional gut microbiome

Gut Dysbiosis. A dysfunctional gut microbiome

While we have an idea on what a healthy gut looks like we are also aware of what constitutes a dysfunctional gut that contributes to adverse health. This condition is called “Dysbiosis” where the microorganisms in the gut including the bacteria do not live in mutual accord, when the “good”, microorganisms are not successfully controlling the “bad” ones or disturbing the balance between “protective” versus “harmful” intestinal microorganisms.[1] It can also mean where an overgrowth of “pathobionts,” i.e., normally good bacteria[2], could negatively affect important functions of the microbiome ecosystem. Even lactobacillus in high concentrations are good for the large intestine and urogenital tracts of females but becomes a pathobiant if there are too many of them in the stomach (SBO) or small intestine where an overgrowth is linked with Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO). So even the so called “good bacteria” can become problematic and lead to dysbiosis if they are out of balance or in the wrong place.

The most important aspect of dysbiosis is that a loss of total microbial diversity which represents the first link in the chain of events leading to the development of local and body wide inflammation. Multiple human conditions have been associated with dysbiosis, including autoimmune and auto inflammatory disorders, such as allergies, cardio vascular, metabolic disorders (diabetes, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), various cancers and inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn's and ulcerative colitis (UC)[3], celiac disease[4], and neurological disorders including autism[5].

Once inflammation starts it appears that these opportunistic microorganisms are able to exploit the inflamed environment and expand their numbers[6] to become an even bigger problem.

There appear to be three types of dysbiosis that more often than not, occur together to create the problem. These include (i) loss of beneficial microbial organisms perhaps through the use of antibiotics, (ii) expansion of pathobionts or potentially harmful microorganisms as a result of too much processed foods and (iii) loss of overall microbial diversity. It is likely that dysbiosis encompasses all three of these manifestations at the same time to influence disease.[7]

The challenge is that the Dysbiotic microbial ecosystem can become resilient over time and may become hard to alter. In one study while dieting rapidly reversed the metabolic problems associated with a high fat diet, the dysbiosis in mice after a 4-week high fat diet persisted up to 21 weeks after returning to normal chow diet.[8] It did however change after 21 weeks.

 

[1] Milani et al., 2016.

[2] Chow et al., 2011.

[3] Baumler and Sperandio, 2016.

[4] Del Chierico et al., 2012.

[5] Konig et al., 2016.

[6] Spees et al., 2013.

[7] Petersen and Round, 2014.

[8] Thaiss et al., 2016.

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