Dr Dingle's Blog / gut
Numerous studies have now shown the benefits of probiotics and prebiotics in reducing inflammation and oxidation. A recent meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in serum CRP following probiotics. Studies suggest the consumption of probiotic yogurt containing L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis in pregnant women for nine weeks led to a reduction in inflammation (CRP) as it did for colorectal cancer, autoimmune disease, and chronic kidney disease. A number of studies have shown that prebiotics can benefit the elderly who suffer from chronic inflammation by improving their gut microbiota and immune function, ultimately reducing inflammation and oxidation. An 8 g daily prebiotic mixture given for three weeks to elderly subjects reduced inflammation (IL-6) improved T cell counts –immune function.
The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of probiotics are thought to act by reducing gut inflammation. Good gut bacteria produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) following the fermentation of soluble fibre by gut bacteria like butyrate, propionate and acetate, which are anti-inflammatory. The probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum, isolated from Chinese traditional Tibetan kefir grains, had strong reducing capacities, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacities, iron-chelating abilities, various free radical scavenging capacities and potent antioxidant activity.
 Mazidi et al. Nutrients 2017.
 Anderson et al. 2004.
 Shoaei et al. 2015.
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 Alipour et al. 2014.
 Tedelind et al. 2007.
 Tang et al. 2017.
Many people get confused about stomach acid and acidosis. These are two totally different things. In fact, the higher your stomach acid, the lower the acidosis or acid levels in the body. Let me explain. Your stomach and gastrointestinal tract form a beautiful, amazing tube that runs through your body, but not inside—they run through your body, not through your cells or in your blood. To get into the body, things have to pass over a barrier such as the gut wall, respiratory tract or skin. The stomach is meant to be acidic, very acidic so it can digest foods, particularly proteins, and destroy pathogens like deadly bacteria, viruses and parasites.
When the stomach is very acidic, in conjunction with digestive juices it breaks down proteins into amino acids. Some of these, like lysine and arginine, once absorbed into the body are alkalising. The high acidity level also allows for foods to be broken down, mostly the proteins, releasing the minerals which they are bound to and thereby allowing more ash minerals to be available for absorption through the gut wall and alkalising the blood. Because the foods are digested better, it also creates better conditions for the rest of digestion and the gut microbiota to function at optimal levels and increase digestion and absorption of even more minerals. Two totally different situations around the acid or pH levels but both influence each other.Ironically, sufficient stomach acid is needed to absorb many of the same minerals and a lack of stomach acid inhibits the absorption of the B vitamins B6, B12 and folate. Lack of stomach acid also blocks the proper breakdown of proteins, since the protein digestive enzyme pepsin cannot work without sufficient stomach acid.
Despite what people may think much of medicine is based on myth. Particularly when it comes to patient care and medication use. One big myth shattered this week is that we don’t have to finish the course of antibiotics. In fac,t the evidence is the opposite and finishing a course of antibiotics may lead to increased bacterial resistance. The one thing it was supposed to stop. However, the over prescription and overuse of antibiotics does contribute to major health problems, especially with all the information coming out on the importance of the gut microbiome and how antibiotics can be so devastating to your microbiome.
Avoiding overuse requires healthcare professionals and the public to be well informed about antibiotic treatment. Public communication about antibiotics often emphasises that patients who fail to complete prescribed antibiotic courses put themselves and others at risk of antibiotic resistance. However, the idea that stopping antibiotic treatment early encourages antibiotic resistance is not supported by evidence, while taking antibiotics for longer than necessary increases the risk of resistance. Without explicitly contradicting previous advice, current public information materials from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Public Health England have replaced “complete the course” with messages advocating taking antibiotics “exactly as prescribed.”
With little evidence that failing to complete a prescribed antibiotic course contributes to antibiotic resistance, it’s time for policy makers, educators, and doctors to drop this message.
Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is amongst the dietary factors most consistently found to be associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in large epidemiological studies. Studies have shown that SSB overconsumption increases intra-abdominal obesity and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver, and also exacerbates cardiometabolic risk. Similar to the prevalence of obesity and T2D, national surveys of food consumption have shown that chronic overconsumption of SSBs is skyrocketing in many parts of the world,
SSB overconsumption is also particularly worrisome among children and adolescents. SSBs typically include carbonated soft drinks, juice drinks (with added sugars), sports drinks, energy drinks, milkshakes, and iced tea or coffee.
The epidemics of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are affecting most if not all developed countries around the world. While the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and T2D remain high in North America and Western Europe, obesity rates and T2D rates are increasing at a stunning pace in developing countries. In Mexico City inhabitants aged between 35 and 74 years, the excess mortality associated with previously diagnosed T2D accounted for one third of all deaths between 1998 to 2004.
In some countries such as the Unites States, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) account for almost half of the added sugar consumed nationally and consumption around the world has reached unprecedented proportions, and the rise in the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in children such as abdominal obesity and insulin resistance has increased in parallel.
A recent modelling study performed by the Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE) estimated that up to 184,000 deaths per year could be attributed to the chronic overconsumption of SSBs . Similar to the prevalence of obesity and T2D, studies analysing national surveys of food consumption have shown that the chronic overconsumption of SSBs is also skyrocketing in many parts of the world.
SSBs are the single greatest source of added sugars in most Western countries. SSBs are typically sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in the US or sucrose. Sucrose, also often referred to as table sugar, is a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose linked via a glycoside bond.
One study showed in a six-month parallel intervention study of 47 overweight individuals that the consumption of 1 L/day of sucrose-sweetened beverages (cola) significantly increased visceral adipose tissue and hepatic fat accumulation compared to the consumption of 1 L/day of semi-skimmed milk or water. Although not associated with increases in body weight or total fat mass, the consumption of cola was linked with increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Interestingly, daily total energy intake did not appear to differ across subgroups, thereby suggesting that energy included in beverages could have been compensated for by reductions in energy from other sources.
HFCS is produced by industrial processing of corn starch. It contains two monosaccharides, free fructose, and glucose in various proportions. Both fructose and glucose have different metabolic fates, an observation that has encouraged many to suggest that fructose may have a unique role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been supported by well-designed controlled studies
In a 10-week randomized clinical trial fed an ad libitum diet with 25% of calories originating from glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages. Although both diets increased body weight, only participants in the HFCS group had increased visceral adipose tissue accumulation at the end of the trial. Insulin levels during a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test increased by 27% in the fructose group (significant) and by approximately 14% in the glucose group (nonsignificant). Similarly, 24-h post-meal triglyceride and fasting apolipoprotein B levels, as well as small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and triglyceride levels all increased in the fructose but not in the glucose group following the intervention.
About a dozen large prospective epidemiological studies have documented the association between SSB consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, T2D, and CVD.
A meta-analysis on 2013 that included 25,745 children and adolescents from 15 prospective studies and 174,252 adults from in seven prospective studies suggest that a one serving per day increase in SSB is associated with a 0.06 unit increase in body mass index (BMI) per year in children and adolescent and with a 0.12 to 0.22 kg yearly weight gain in adults. The same group also published evidence that SSBs overconsumption is linked with the onset of the metabolic syndrome (a constellation of CVD and T2D risk factors associated with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance) and T2D.
Since 2006 there has been a large body of scientific evidence showing the gut microbiota is interlinked with obesity and other metabolic conditions including type 2 diabetes. Probiotics are live micro-organisms that confer health benefits to the host and prebiotics are fibers that selectively improve the growth of beneficial gut microbes. Previous animal studies have shown probiotics prevented weight gain, improved insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced endotoxemia and tissue inflammation
In a study of 225 healthy volunteers randomized into four groups those taking the prebiotic with the probiotic or the probiotic alone improved weight. The prebiotic with probiotic group showed a − 4.5% or 1.4 kg difference to the Placebo group, and the probiotic group alone had a − 3.0 reduction in body fat. Changes in fat mass were most pronounced in the abdominal region, and were reflected by similar changes in waist circumference. Both groups also saw a reduction in inflammation.
This clinical trial demonstrates that a probiotic product with or without dietary fiber controls body fat mass and also reduced waist circumference and food intake.