Dr Dingle's Blog / diabetes
The reason I call it the blood pressure smoothie is all of the ingredients have been multiple shown in scientific studies to reduce blood pressure. By no way is this meant to replace advice from you GP but you can share it with them and see if they are interested in preventing the problem rather than just treating it with pharmaceuticals. Remember also that I am not a GP I am just the guy who does all the research which is why I have a PhD.
4 ingredients in order of importance
Almonds (soaked for at least 8 hours)
Filtered re-mineralised ionized water.
(equal amounts of each ingredient excerpt a more water)
Extras for taste and minerals
Start by grinding the linseed and the almond in the smoothie maker.
Add the beetroot and the filtered water to make up to the constituency you need.
If you want to make it a bit sweeter add some ripe banana, dates or coconut water (and coconut meat if you have the whole coconut) as they are rich in Potassium (and other minerals) which is essential for muscle relaxation and tastes great. But wait till the banana is ripe for the best taste. You can also cold green tea instead of water to add to the antioxidant mix.
The properties that make this smoothie such a potent blood pressure mix is all of the ingredients have excellent antioxidant properties, rich in minerals and other nutrients liked with lowering blood pressure in scientific studies.
High blood pressure or hypertension is having a blood pressure reading of above of around 90mm Hg on 140mm Hg. Hypertension itself is not a disease but a condition or as an indicator of ‘increased risk’ of cardiovascular disease. Patients who are hypertensive have an increased risk of heart attack and stroke due to the direct correlation between the two. Hypertension also contributes significantly to the increased risk of kidney failure and other chronic illness.
In healthy people the cells of blood vessels produce the substance called nitric oxide (NO) which instructs smooth muscles surrounding arteries to relax. If they cant relax they stay rigid and you end up with high blood pressure. The NO is produced in a single layer of cells that line the inside of the arteries called the endothelium. If this tissue is damaged in the case of too much pressure, oxidation or through other means it stops producing NO and blood pressure rises.
Many of the beneficial actions of nutrition on lowering blood pressure results both directly and indirectly through improving endothelial tissue and NO production and release from this tissue. Two major pathways to increase NO are increase the rates of nitrates in the diet, the building block for NO, and L-Arginine which stimulate the enzyme to manufacture NO. Endothelial-derived NO also inhibits platelet adhesion, activation, secretion, and aggregation and promotes platelet disaggregation so you are less likely to have a stroke. A third mechanism that is absolutely critical is to protect and repair the endothelium, remember it is only one cell thick and very susceptible to damage. Vitamin C and antioxidants are essential for this part.
Diets high in dietary nitrate such as beetroot are associated with reduced blood pressure increased exercise performance as a result of vasodilation (expansion) of the blood vessels and a decreased incidence in cardiovascular disease. 100-200mg of beetroot per day has been shown to produce immediate effects of lowering blood pressure by around 15 mm of Hg. Beetroot is also rich in vitamins, phytochemicals and contains large amounts of iron and folic acid Mg, Na and Ca. Apart from the nitrates the major bioactive molecules in beet are polyphenols, flavonoids, betalains, therapeutic enzymes, ascorbic acid, and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA). So they not only provide the ingredients for NO production but also help in repair and protection of the endothelium.
Almonds have one of the highest sources of L-Arginine (most nuts have lots of L-Arginine so you can substitute the almonds if you want) which stimulates NO synthesis. Studies of almonds have shown reductions of 5-6 mm of blood pressure. It is important to soak the almonds as they (all nuts and seeds) have enzyme-inhibiting factors in them which stop them from germinating until they have enough water. These enzyme inhibitors also stop the absorption of some nutrients, particularly minerals. When you soak the nuts many of the nutrients also become more available for digestion.
Flaxseed is rich in Omega 3 fatty acids, L Arginine (about 20% less than almonds), lignans, antioxidants and fiber that together probably provide benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease. Studies on consuming 30g of flaxseed have been shown to reduce blood pressure by up to 15 mm Hg.
A study of 20 volunteers, eight males and twelve females, who were given Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains, either 30 min before breakfast (pre-prandial administration), or 30 min after breakfast (post-prandial administration) found no difference in the levels measured in the stools. Different theories have suggested the higher acidity in the empty stomach or the mixing in with the food might influence the amount of viable bacteria that populate the colon. While only a small number the study suggest take them any time.
The study also found probiotic supplement levels up to 1 month after the end of probiotic oral intake in both groups. It also reported a significant decrease in Firmicutes abundance which has been associated with weight gain and diabetes. The abundance of a particular stain Akkermansia muciniphila was increased compared to samples collected at the beginning of the experiment. This is important as it is the bacteria that increases with the diabetic drug metformin and is associated with breaking down the mucus build-up in the gut and stimulating energy production in the cells (the mitochondria). Yes that is how the drug metformin works. If they inject it directly into the blood it has no benefit at all. Yes the worlds most effective drug is just a prebiotic.
In this study the probiotic supplement showed the ability to modulate the gut microbiota composition, leading to a significant reduction of potentially harmful bacteria and an increase of beneficial ones. The two bacterial strains seemed able to exert a beneficial effect on the bacterial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract, as many significant positive changes in gut microbiota composition have been highlighted.
In the last years, their numerous beneficial properties and positive impact on human health have deeply been described. Nowadays, hundreds of different bacterial strains are available in the global probiotic market and consequently, the choice of the most suitable probiotic product becomes very difficult and fragmented. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are the main microorganisms used as probiotics; indeed, numerous species belonging to these genera have been reported as safe and effective in improving the host’s health. Several studies showed that the combination of specific bacterial strains belonging to Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species can act in optimal synergy for restoring the intestinal balance.
The study shows the benefits of more fruit to prevent diabetes and reduce diabetic complications for diabetics. Unfortunately, fruit has been put in with all the foods where sugar is added just because it has sugar in it. People are being driven away from consuming more fruit and I have argued against poor advice given to diabetics for years. If it is no bad show me the evidence.
While sugar is a major culprit in diabetes it is not a sugar illness it is a mithochondrial dysfunction brought about by sugar and other poor diet (trans fats, artificial sweeteners etc), microbiome issues and lifestyle including stress, inactivity and loss of metabolic tissue and even toxins in the environment. The difference is that the sugar in fruit comes with a large array of essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory ingredients, fibre, enzymes, water and prebiotics. All of these are potentially involved in repair of the mitochondria.
Of all the studies I have looked at they show that, even for diabetics, fruit is beneficial even when it comes to blood sugar levels. When fruit is consumed the sugar in it does not behave the same way that added sugar does. There are many potential reasons for this but we need to look beyond just basic concepts like if sugar is bad all foods that have sugar in them must be bad. This is naive and does not reflect the complexity of the human body.
This study was of 0.5 million adults in China over 7 years of follow-up. It found that among those without diabetes at baseline, higher fruit consumption was associated with significantly lower risk of developing diabetes with a clear dose–response relationship. That is the more fruit the lower the diabetes. In addition, among those who had diabetes at the beginning of the study, higher fruit consumption was associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality and micro vascular (small blood vessel) and macro vascular (large blood vessel) complications.
"In this large epidemiological study in Chinese adults, higher fresh fruit consumption was associated with significantly lower risk of diabetes and, among diabetic individuals, lower risks of death and development of major vascular complications."
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February 1, 2017 : Probiotics, People and Poo
http://tix.yt/probiotics February 8, 2017 : Reducing Toxic Overload in our Kids
http://tix.yt/toxic-kids February 15, 2017 : 7 Steps To Permanent Weight Loss
February 22, 2017 : Living Longer, Ageing Well. The science of living a full life http://tix.yt/ageingwell
New research suggests that a 25% reduction in exposure to just 4 chemicals commonly found in the home would reduce diabetes cases by around 13% which could save billions of dollars in annual health costs.
Increasing evidence suggests that synthetic chemicals commonly found in the environment contribute to metabolic disorders, especially obesity and diabetes. Previous publications have associated prevalent diabetes with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chlorinated pesticides, phthalates and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Separate studies found similar connections between diabetes and exposure to DDT, PCBs and perfluoroalkyl.
In this study of 1,016 participants they found significant connections between the four chemicals investigated and a number of different diseases and found reduced exposure to all four chemicals would lead to a likely reduction 13% in diabetes cases. This study confirms substantial contribution, especially of mixtures of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, to adult type 2 diabetes, and large annual costs of medical care. A previous reported a significant positive relationship between phthalates in the blood and lowered insulin secretion, increased insulin resistance or both.
While this study supports efforts to reduce chemical exposures to reduce the burden and costs of diabetes there are many other disease states including cardiovascular disease and cancer that would also likely be reduced.
Exposure to “obesogenic” chemicals has an important role in the obesity and diabetes pandemic. Studies dating back to the 1970s have shown that low-dose chemical exposures were associated with weight gain in experimental animals. Since then, a growing number of studies show links between toxins and weight gain, obesity and diabetes. Known or suspected culprits behind negative epigenetic changes include toxins such as heavy metals, pesticides, plastic compounds including BPA, diesel exhaust, tobacco smoke, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hormones, radioactivity, viruses, bacteria and endocrine disrupting chemicals.
The main role of fat cells is to store energy and release it when needed. Scientists now know that fat tissue acts as an endocrine (hormone) organ, releasing hormones related to appetite and metabolism. Research to date suggests that different obesogenic compounds may have different mechanisms of action, some affecting the number of fat cells, others the size of fat cells, and still others the hormones that influence appetite, satiety, food preferences, and energy metabolism. Another mechanism through which these chemical obesogens can contribute to weight gain is through their impact on the gut microbiome, linking gut ecology and environmental chemicals to obesity and diabetes.
BPA, or bisphenol-A, a chemical found in everything from plastic bottles to metal food containers, may be partly to blame for our excess weight. BPA has been shown to alter the body’s metabolism, increasing weight gain and making it difficult to lose weight. In a study of 1,326 children, girls between ages 9 and 12 with high BPA levels had double the risk of being obese than girls with low BPA levels, validating previous animal and human studies. The chemical can alter the body’s metabolism and make it harder to lose weight. Girls with high levels of BPA, two micrograms per litre or more, were twice as likely to be obese as girls with lower levels of BPA in the same age group. Girls with very high levels of BPA, more than 10 micrograms per litre, were five times more likely to be obese, the study showed. In animal experiments, a mother’s exposure to BPA is producing the same outcomes that we see in humans born light at birth: an increase in abdominal fat and glucose intolerance. BPA affected rodent fat cells at very low doses, 1,000 times below the dose that regulatory agencies presume causes no effect in humans.A growing body of evidence shows that the use of certain pesticides may also be associated with weight gain and diabetes risk. In animal experiments, mice fed high-fat diets gained about 30% more weight and had higher blood sugar than other mice eating the same high-fat diets when they also ingested doses of a brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), which is used in building materials and insulation. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ubiquitous chemical, used in non-stick cookware, Gore-Tex™ waterproof clothing, Scotchgard™ stain repellent on carpeting and mattresses and is a potential endocrine disruptor. Researchers gave pregnant mice PFOA during pregnancy and when the offspring reached adulthood, they became obese, reaching significantly higher weight levels than controls. Phthalates are plasticizers that have been related to obesity in humans and occur in many PVC items as well as in scented items such as air fresheners, laundry products, and personal care products, and many plastics.
A variety of natural vinegar products are found in civilizations around the world. It is a sour traditional fermented food that is used in pickles, sauces and beverages, as well as in various food-processing procedures and as a specialty food ingredient. Vinegar is produced from fruit juices such as grape, apple, plum, coconut, and tomato, rice, and potato. It is made by crushing the fruit and squeezing out the liquid. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, and the sugars are turned into alcohol. In a second fermentation process, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria.
Although vinegar can be made from any fruit, apple cider vinegar is the most common vinegar used in western folk medicine. Traditionally, apple cider vinegar is made with a long fermentation of apple juices and pulp, of around 1 month, and is fuelled by species of acetic acid bacteria from the fruit and the environment. As a result, acetic acid is the main ingredient of apple cider vinegar, around 3–10% and gives vinegar its characteristic taste and smell. In addition, some of the other ingredients include, polyphenols, like carotenoids, catechin, ephicatechin, as well as gallic acid, citric, lactic, malic and tartaric acids, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, pectin, probiotics and prebiotics 1-5. Vinegar also contains various minerals such copper, potassium, sodium, chloride, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, as well as vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, E and, complex carbohydrates and fiber, amino acids and numerous beneficial enzymes to help with digestion. Many of the ingredients in vinegar such as the phenolic compounds are also found in the starting material (i.e., the fruit), or may be introduced to it by aging the vinegar so large differences exist in content of phenolic compounds among vinegars. Overall vinegar is an extremely well rounded nutritious food.
While vinegar products are widely used around the world, the scientific information about the health effects of vinegar as a traditional medicine is only now catching up and supported by many scientific studies. Over the past 20 years the research on vinegar has shown many positive effects on health 2,3 such as an antibacterial effect, cardiovascular benefits, reduction in blood pressure, an antioxidant and anti inflammatory effect, regulation of blood sugar and anti-diabetic effect, reduction and prevention of obesity 6-8, a healing effect on injuries, and a positive effect on brain and cognitive functions 1,9 and on bone health 10.
Historically vinegar was used in the treatment of diabetes before any pharmacologic glucose-lowering therapy 11,12. Recent studies indicate that vinegar improves insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers, diabetics and obese individuals 8,13,14. In type 2 diabetics vinegar reduces the after meal peak in circulating sugar (hyperglycaemia), insulin and fatty acids (triglycerides) 11,12,16, which in turn reduces the level of blood sugar reacting with the red blood cells (haemoglobin A1c) which is damaging to the blood cells in patients with type 2 diabetes 17.
More specifically the blood glucose/sugar-lowering effect of vinegar was evident when vinegar was ingested with complex carbohydrates, but to a lesser extent with simple sugars (monosaccharides) 13,18 and vinegar reduced the after meal sugar spike (postprandial glycaemia) in patients with type 2 diabetes when added to a high, but not to a low, glycaemic index meal 15. This suggests that vinegar is more effective in controlling blood sugar and triglycerides best in the processed carb rich diet compared to when you just take it with simple healthy meals.
While there appear to be many mechanisms by which vinegar reduces glucose levels not everything is fully understood yet. However, what we do know is that vinegar/acetic acid delays gastric emptying, slowing down the digestion and absorption of sugars and fats 19,20; it slows the breaking down of more complex sugars (disaccharide) in the small intestine and suppresses the absorption of carbohydrate 21; lowers free fatty acid in the blood leading to improved insulin sensitivity, increased blood flow to the peripheral tissues and increased satiety, leading to lower food intake 22. In a study of 12 healthy volunteers vinegar served with a portion of white wheat bread containing 50 g available carbohydrates reported a significant dose-response relation for blood glucose and serum insulin; the higher the acetic acid level, the lower the glucose and insulin. Furthermore, the rating of stomach fullness was directly related to the acetic acid level 8.
Vinegar also increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscles 23 and ingestion at bedtime has also been shown to decrease fasting glucose levels in the morning in humans with type 2 diabetes, suggesting an effect of acetic acid on reducing glucose production and increasing the rates of glycogen synthesis (storage) in the cells 24. Vinegar also stimulates the blood flow and capillary recruitment to the muscles 25,26. Much of this occurs through epigenetic processes and induced gene expression 27.
Apple cider vinegar and other fruit vinegars also have a protective effect on the liver, protecting it from metabolic damage associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2 28-31. These findings suggest that these vinegars may prevent high fat diet-induced obesity and obesity-related cardiac complications 32.
A large number of studies have also shown the cardiovascular benefits of vinegar 33. In a study of rats with high blood pressure both vinegar and acetic acid decreased blood pressure 34. The studies show that even acute consumption of apple cider vinegar (which is rich in antioxidants and anti inflammatories) causes significant reduction on some risk factors around the build up of plaque in the arteries 35 and reduced atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta, among rabbits on fat diets 36. Vinegar also decreases circulating blood fat (triglyceride) levels 37,38,39 and protect from fat accumulation in liver 40,41 in obese 38and/or type 2 diabetic 42 humans . It also decreases fat levels in skeletal muscle 43 which is a common feature in diabetes and insulin resistance. Apple cider vinegars, regardless of the production method, decreases triglyceride and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) levels in all groups when compared to controls without vinegar supplementation. A number of studies have also shown the benefits of vinegar on the cholesterol profile even in animals consuming a high cholesterol diet 36,37 and the polyphenols (catechins) present in apple vinegar have been shown to inhibit the LDL oxidation in endothelial cells 44 which make up the lining of the cell wall and may be the precondition for plaque build up.
As a result of its improvement on blood circulation vinegar is likely to have a benefits for many cardio vascular illnesses, even Alzheimer’s (which is just another cardio vascular disease), but as yet the research is only circumstantial. Vinegar has also been shown to be an effective treatment for varicose veins taken internally and applied externally. In a study randomized controlled trial of 120 patients application of vinegar lead to reduction in cramps, pain, leg fatigue perception, edema, itching, pigmentation, weight feelings in the leg, and visual ratings 45. Even though vinegar does not remove the problem veins entirely, the effects they have can reduce symptoms, reduce complication development, or reduce aesthetic concerns.
Vinegar has been shown to reduce osteoporosis 46. Vinegar is a rich source of minerals, such as calcium, manganese and magnesium, which are important in sustaining optimal bone mass. Moreover, the acetic acid content in vinegar has also been shown to promote the absorption and retention of calcium 47.
Consuming apple cider vinegar has also been shown to to have many anti oxidative effects throughout the body including reducing eye lens oxidative injury, a characteristic of the developments of cataracts, by stimulating one of the main antioxidant systems in the body called glutathione peroxidase in mice 48.
Vinegar also helps with digestion and has been recommended to people with digestive troubles for hundreds of years. Common thought is that it helps to prime the gastro-intestinal system for digestion and experience shows that people suffering from reflux (GORD) are more likely to have low levels of gastric acid, not too much acid and one teaspoon (diluted) of vinegar before a meal can assist with digestion. However, this is unlikely to be a result of the pH of the vinegar but may be due to other compounds such as enzymes, prebiotics and probiotics to assist digestion or that it promotes the release of bile acids to assist with the digestion of fats.
In the future our medical doctors will tell their patients to go and have 30-50 ml of organic apple cider vinegar a day spread over two meals to prevent and help treat the major health conditions we are confronted with today rather than put them on multiple drugs that have deadly side effects.
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Studies dating back to 1975 show that supplementation with vitamin B6 can reduce the incidence of GD by 95% within 2 weeks. Since then a number of other studies have shown links with low nutrition level in general and in particular low levels of vitamin D and C. this is obvious if you consider there is an increased requirement for nutrients in normal pregnancy, not only due to increased demand, but also increased loss. However, despite these results the medical profession still prefer to use pharmaceuticals.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is carbohydrate intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and is a large risk for both mother and fetus. GDM is associated with both short and long term adverse consequences to expecting mothers and their offspring. Immediate maternal complications include preeclampsia and need for cesarean sections while complications in the baby include hyperinsulinemia, macrosomia, hypoglycemia, and respiratory distress syndrome. GDM also increases the risk of obesity and glucose intolerance in the offspring.
The incidence of GD has dramatically increased in the past 20 years in some cases over 100% increase. Currently around 16.2% of women with live births had some form of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Asian women are more prone to develop GDM than European women and Indian women have 11-fold increased risk of developing glucose intolerance in pregnancy compared to Caucasian women
In this study in 1975 fourteen pregnant women were shown by the oral glucose tolerance test to have gestational diabetes. 13 of these women had an increased urinary xanthurenic-acid excretion after an oral load of L-tryptophan indicated a relative pyridoxine deficiency. All patients were treated with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 100 mg/day for 14 days by mouth, after which the pyridoxine deficiency disappeared and the oral glucose tolerance improved considerably. Only two patients then had sufficiently impaired glucose tolerance to justify the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (H J Bennink and W H Schreurs. Br Med J. 1975 Jul 5; 3(5974): 13–15).
In another study thirteen women with late pregnancy gestational diabetes mellitus were treated with 100 mg. of vitamin B6 per day for 2 weeks. There was a statistically significant improvement in the glucose tolerance curve after the vitamin B6 treatment, with a lowering of blood glucose levels at all points on the curve except for the 5 minute value. This glucose effect occurred despite an unchanged or lowered plasma insulin level (Spellacy WN, Buhi WC, Birk SA. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977 Mar 15;127(6):599-602).
Specific nutrient deficiencies of chromium, magnesium, potassium and pyridoxine (Jovanovic-Peterson L1, Peterson CM. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996 Feb;15(1):14-20) as well as vitamin D and C appear to increase the tendency towards hyperglycemia in gestational diabetic women because each of these four deficiencies causes impairment of pancreatic insulin production.
The best B6 supplement to take is pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P)