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Environmental Estrogens and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC's)

Environmental Estrogens and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC's)

Since the 1980's, there has been a growing amount of research toward the potential interaction between these environmental estrogens and wild animals, with a number of reports detailing the emergence of 'feminised wildlife’ around the world, and a range of adverse effects in humans including decreased sperm count, increased cases of testicular cancer and testicular abnormalities, increased breast cancer in men and women and premature or precocious puberty. Other adverse health outcomes linked with EDC’s include headache, migraine, depression, gastrointestinal disturbances, insomnia, changes in breast tissue and in vaginal bleeding. More chronic symptoms affect the cardiovascular system, the skin (itching, rash, abnormal pigmentation), the gallbladder, and tumours particularly of the breast but also uterus, cervix, vagina and liver. While other studies have shown increases in the organ weight of estrogen-sensitive tissues such as the uterus, and calcium and bone metabolism are all examples of the estrogenic effects. Even how we age and age at menopause can be affected by these chemicals. In support of this at least one professional and very conservative group, the Endocrine Society, has concluded that sufficient evidence now exists linking endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to adverse human reproductive effects, including possible epigenetic and trans-generational effects.

Unfortunately, our babies are being born pre-polluted with chemicals detectable in their blood, in the placenta and in amniotic fluid because of exposure to these chemicals during pregnancy and throughout the mother’s life. The placental barrier has been shown to allow these chemicals to cross, as many of them have been measured in human fetal cord blood, fetal serum, human amniotic fluid and even newborn stools (meconium). Exposure to these chemicals before birth poses a serious health risks to developing fetus, infants and young children as shown by the increasing adverse effects including negative birth outcomes, childhood obesity and increasing intellectual disabilities. It is believed that current levels of environmental estrogen exposure results in lower birth weights, smaller head circumferences, poorer neuromuscular maturity and visual recognition, delays in psychomotor development, short term memory problems, and growth retardation in newborn babies. Fetal exposure to these environmental estrogens are suspected of disrupting thyroid functioning, sexual differentiation of the brain in foetal development and cognitive motor function and cause anxious behaviour. They are also able to bind to neurotransmitters such as epinephrine, neuroepinophrine and dopamine enabling estrogens to influence the body's central nervous system (CNS). Environmental estrogens have also been shown to effect the body’s immune system.

Studies have found strong links with exposure to excessive levels of estrogen in males with penis abnormalities, lower libido, congenital anomalies, failure of the testes to descend and testicular cancer, reduced penis size and increased embryo mortality.

What is most concerning regarding control of these chemicals is that there are no indications given or regulations set regarding the minimal age at which they should be used or exposed to them. Increasingly, pregnant mothers, infants, pre-pubescent and pubescent children are being exposed to a large number of products containing these chemicals, with no research to show that exposure is safe during these critical periods of development.

Equally strong is the evidence that these same chemicals can cause some of the most common cancers: prostate and testicular cancer in men and breast cancer in women. One of the most troubling is their association with breast cancer. Breast cancer is the major cancer affecting women in the Western world and one of the most disturbing and well documented current trends is the alarming increase in breast cancer incidence over the past few decades. Fifty years ago the risk rate was one woman in 20; today it is one in 8 and approximately two-thirds of breast tumors are estrogen receptive, and environmental estrogens like parabens, phthalates and BPA are known to bind to estrogen receptors. Estrogen-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer, are known to be highly responsive to estrogens for growth. Even more disturbing is the increase in numbers of young girls developing breast cancer.

 

https://www.drdingle.com/collections/book-sales/products/dangerous-beauty-1

 

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Mothers BPA levels linked with birth defects.

Mothers BPA levels linked with birth defects.

Evidence from animal studies shows that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in females and males. In females exposure during early gestation, a critical period for reproductive development, is of particular concern. The Anogenital distance (AGD) is a sensitive biomarker of the fetal hormonal balance and a measure of reproductive toxicity in animal studies. In some studies, the daughters of BPA-exposed dams have shorter AGD than controls.

The results of this study showed BPA was detectable in 94% of women. In analysis of the 381 eligible subjects, maternal BPA concentration was inversely associated with infant AGD-AC

In support of animal studies this human study shows that BPA may have toxic effects on the female reproductive system in humans, as it does in animal models. Higher first-trimester BPA exposure was associated with significantly shorter AGD in daughters, suggesting that BPA may alter the hormonal environment of the female fetus.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic chemical widely used in consumer products, including food and drink containers, thermal receipts, medical equipment, and other plastic products. BPA is detectable in over 90% of the population in the United States, and may act on the endocrine system in numerous ways, including binding to and activating numerous nuclear and membrane endocrine receptors, and stimulating changes in estrogen, androgen, progesterone, and thyroid hormone activity.

Dozens of studies in humans have examined BPA exposure in relation to a wide range of health end points, including reproductive, perinatal, and pediatric outcomes. Many animal studies and in vitro studies show that many tissues and organ systems (including the mammary gland, prostate gland, adipose tissue, reproductive system, and brain) are sensitive to BPA. In animal and human studies, BPA can cross the placenta to enter fetal circulation. Because fetal development is a period of rapid cell proliferation and differentiation, tissue development, and organ growth, prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals such as BPA may be of particular concern.

source

https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp875/

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200 scientists rally against triclosan in colgate toothpaste and cleaning products.

200 scientists rally against triclosan in colgate toothpaste and cleaning products.

Two hundred scientists any benefits of triclosan and triclocarban—used in some soaps, toothpastes, detergents, paints, carpets—are outweighed by the risk. While other studies and the FDA in the US say there is no benefit from using these ingredients over basic soap and cleaning products.

these two chemicals have been used for years without any definitive proof they’re providing benefits.
The compounds are used in an estimated 2,000 products but are being phased out of some uses. In February the EU banned triclosan in hygiene products. U.S. manufacturers are phasing out triclosan from hand soaps after the Food and Drug Administration banned it last year amid concerns that the compound disrupted the body's hormone systems.
And in Australia they are doing nothing.

However, just as worrying some manufactures of personal care products are simply substituting other antimicrobials for triclosan when they are not even needed.

The Florence Statement on Triclosan and Triclocarban

As scientists, medical doctors, and public health professionals, we are concerned about the continued widespread use of the chlorinated antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban for the following reasons:

Triclosan and triclocarban are used as antimicrobials, a class of chemicals present in >2,000 products including soaps, toothpastes, detergents, clothing, toys, carpets, plastics, and paints. In personal care products like hand soap, there is no evidence that use of triclosan or triclocarban improves consumer or patient health or prevents disease.
Triclosan and triclocarban used in consumer products end up in the environment and have been detected in a wide variety of matrices worldwide.
Triclosan and triclocarban persist in the environment and are a source of toxic and carcinogenic compounds including dioxins, chloroform, and chlorinated anilines.
Triclosan, triclocarban, and their transformation products and byproducts bioaccumulate in aquatic plants and animals, and triclosan partitions into human blood and breast milk.
Triclosan and triclocarban have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms.
Humans are exposed to triclosan and triclocarban through direct contact with personal care products and from other sources including food, drinking water, and dust. Triclosan has been detected in the urine of a majority of humans tested.
Triclosan and triclocarban are endocrine disruptors and are associated with reproductive and developmental impacts in animal and in vitro studies. Potential implications for human reproduction and development are of concern and merit further study.
Human epidemiology and animal studies suggest triclosan exposure can increase sensitivity to allergens.
Overuse of triclosan may contribute to antibiotic/antimicrobial resistance and may modify the microbiome.
A number of authorities, including the FDA, have restricted the use of triclosan and triclocarban in certain types of soaps. These and other antimicrobial chemicals are generally not restricted from use in other products.

We therefore call on the international community to limit the production and use of triclosan and triclocarban and to question the use of other antimicrobials. We urge scientists, governments, chemical and product manufacturers, purchasing organizations, retailers, and consumers to take the actions recommended below.
Source
https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp1788/

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Common household disinfectants linked with birth defects, miscarriages and fertility.

Common household disinfectants linked with birth defects, miscarriages and fertility.

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial disinfectants commonly used in commercial and household settings and everyone is virtually exposed to these chemicals every day. Two common quaternary ammonium compounds, alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), are combined in common cleaners and disinfectants.

In this study introduction of a cleaner containing ADBAC+DDAC in the living chambers caused neural tube defects (NTDs) in mice and rats. They found increased neural tube defects with exposure to the disinfectant combination in both rats and mice. The neural tube defects persisted for two generations after cessation of exposure.

They also found that male exposure alone was sufficient to cause neural tube defects. Equally significant, ambient exposure from disinfectant use in the cage they were kept in, influenced the levels of neural tube defects to a greater extent than oral dosing. So the ambient exposure through the air and surfaces had more impact than the feeding.

These results clearly demonstrate that ADBAC+DDAC in combination are teratogenic (birth defects) to rodents. Given the increased use of these disinfectants, further evaluation of their safety in humans and their contribution to health and disease is essential.

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a large class of chemicals used for their antimicrobial and antistatic properties. They are common ingredients in cleaners and disinfectants, hand wipes, food preservatives, swimming pool treatments, laundry products, shampoos, conditioners, eye drops, and other personal care products. QACs have been in use for over 60 years, but the number of products containing QACs has increased recently as the versatility of these compounds is recognized. Over time, the chemical structure has been altered to increase antimicrobial and surfactant efficacy resulting in multiple generations of these products. Many products now contain a combination of two or more QACs. Extensive use of QACs results in ubiquitous human exposure, yet reproductive toxicity has not been evaluated.

Because chemical mixtures can act synergistically to produce greater toxic effects than the sum of the individual components, evaluation of common mixtures is essential in the evaluation of chemical risk.

This study was initiated because some laboratories which breed and test with mice and rats had noticed some anomalies. One laboratory noted abrupt declines in mouse colony productivity, along with declines in fetal health, that coincided with the introduction of disinfectants containing the QACs, alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). Several years later, the laboratory encountered breeding problems and neural tube birth defects (NTDs) that began shortly after a change in room disinfectants. These experiences pointed to the QAC disinfectant but could not confirm toxicity because neither incident tested QACs under experimental conditions.

In an earlier study by the same team reproductive studies demonstrated that QACs adversely affect both male and female fertility and fecundity in rodents (Melin et al., 2014, 2016). Decreased reproductive performance in laboratory mice coincided with the introduction of a disinfectant containing both alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). QACs were detected in caging material over a period of several months following cessation of disinfectant use. Breeding pairs exposed for six months to a QAC disinfectant exhibited decreases in fertility and fecundity: increased time to first litter, longer pregnancy intervals, fewer pups per litter and fewer pregnancies. Significant morbidity in near term dams was also observed. In summary, exposure to a common QAC disinfectant mixture significantly impaired reproductive health in mice.

 

Source 1

Ambient and dosed exposure to quaternary ammonium disinfectants causes neural tube defects in rodents. Hrubec TC et al 15 June 2017. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bdr2.1064/full

Source 2

Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice.

Melin VE1, Potineni H1, Hunt P2, Griswold J2, Siems B3, Werre SR4, Hrubec TC5.Reprod Toxicol. 2014 Dec;50:163-70. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.07.071. Epub 2014 Aug 14.

 

Read more →

Common household disinfectants linked with birth defects, miscarriages and fertility.

Common household disinfectants linked with birth defects, miscarriages and fertility.

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial disinfectants commonly used in commercial and household settings and everyone is virtually exposed to these chemicals every day. Two common quaternary ammonium compounds, alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), are combined in common cleaners and disinfectants.

In this study introduction of a cleaner containing ADBAC+DDAC in the living chambers caused neural tube defects (NTDs) in mice and rats. They found increased neural tube defects with exposure to the disinfectant combination in both rats and mice. The neural tube defects persisted for two generations after cessation of exposure.

They also found that male exposure alone was sufficient to cause neural tube defects. Equally significant, ambient exposure from disinfectant use in the cage they were kept in, influenced the levels of neural tube defects to a greater extent than oral dosing. So the ambient exposure through the air and surfaces had more impact than the feeding.

These results clearly demonstrate that ADBAC+DDAC in combination are teratogenic (birth defects) to rodents. Given the increased use of these disinfectants, further evaluation of their safety in humans and their contribution to health and disease is essential.

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a large class of chemicals used for their antimicrobial and antistatic properties. They are common ingredients in cleaners and disinfectants, hand wipes, food preservatives, swimming pool treatments, laundry products, shampoos, conditioners, eye drops, and other personal care products. QACs have been in use for over 60 years, but the number of products containing QACs has increased recently as the versatility of these compounds is recognized. Over time, the chemical structure has been altered to increase antimicrobial and surfactant efficacy resulting in multiple generations of these products. Many products now contain a combination of two or more QACs. Extensive use of QACs results in ubiquitous human exposure, yet reproductive toxicity has not been evaluated.

Because chemical mixtures can act synergistically to produce greater toxic effects than the sum of the individual components, evaluation of common mixtures is essential in the evaluation of chemical risk.

This study was initiated because some laboratories which breed and test with mice and rats had noticed some anomalies. One laboratory noted abrupt declines in mouse colony productivity, along with declines in fetal health, that coincided with the introduction of disinfectants containing the QACs, alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). Several years later, the laboratory encountered breeding problems and neural tube birth defects (NTDs) that began shortly after a change in room disinfectants. These experiences pointed to the QAC disinfectant but could not confirm toxicity because neither incident tested QACs under experimental conditions.

In an earlier study by the same team reproductive studies demonstrated that QACs adversely affect both male and female fertility and fecundity in rodents (Melin et al., 2014, 2016). Decreased reproductive performance in laboratory mice coincided with the introduction of a disinfectant containing both alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). QACs were detected in caging material over a period of several months following cessation of disinfectant use. Breeding pairs exposed for six months to a QAC disinfectant exhibited decreases in fertility and fecundity: increased time to first litter, longer pregnancy intervals, fewer pups per litter and fewer pregnancies. Significant morbidity in near term dams was also observed. In summary, exposure to a common QAC disinfectant mixture significantly impaired reproductive health in mice.

 

Source 1

Ambient and dosed exposure to quaternary ammonium disinfectants causes neural tube defects in rodents. Hrubec TC et al 15 June 2017. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bdr2.1064/full

Source 2

Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice.

Melin VE1, Potineni H1, Hunt P2, Griswold J2, Siems B3, Werre SR4, Hrubec TC5.Reprod Toxicol. 2014 Dec;50:163-70. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.07.071. Epub 2014 Aug 14.

 

Read more →