Dr Dingle's Blog / BPA

Environmental Estrogens and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC's)

Environmental Estrogens and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC's)

Since the 1980's, there has been a growing amount of research toward the potential interaction between these environmental estrogens and wild animals, with a number of reports detailing the emergence of 'feminised wildlife’ around the world, and a range of adverse effects in humans including decreased sperm count, increased cases of testicular cancer and testicular abnormalities, increased breast cancer in men and women and premature or precocious puberty. Other adverse health outcomes linked with EDC’s include headache, migraine, depression, gastrointestinal disturbances, insomnia, changes in breast tissue and in vaginal bleeding. More chronic symptoms affect the cardiovascular system, the skin (itching, rash, abnormal pigmentation), the gallbladder, and tumours particularly of the breast but also uterus, cervix, vagina and liver. While other studies have shown increases in the organ weight of estrogen-sensitive tissues such as the uterus, and calcium and bone metabolism are all examples of the estrogenic effects. Even how we age and age at menopause can be affected by these chemicals. In support of this at least one professional and very conservative group, the Endocrine Society, has concluded that sufficient evidence now exists linking endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to adverse human reproductive effects, including possible epigenetic and trans-generational effects.

Unfortunately, our babies are being born pre-polluted with chemicals detectable in their blood, in the placenta and in amniotic fluid because of exposure to these chemicals during pregnancy and throughout the mother’s life. The placental barrier has been shown to allow these chemicals to cross, as many of them have been measured in human fetal cord blood, fetal serum, human amniotic fluid and even newborn stools (meconium). Exposure to these chemicals before birth poses a serious health risks to developing fetus, infants and young children as shown by the increasing adverse effects including negative birth outcomes, childhood obesity and increasing intellectual disabilities. It is believed that current levels of environmental estrogen exposure results in lower birth weights, smaller head circumferences, poorer neuromuscular maturity and visual recognition, delays in psychomotor development, short term memory problems, and growth retardation in newborn babies. Fetal exposure to these environmental estrogens are suspected of disrupting thyroid functioning, sexual differentiation of the brain in foetal development and cognitive motor function and cause anxious behaviour. They are also able to bind to neurotransmitters such as epinephrine, neuroepinophrine and dopamine enabling estrogens to influence the body's central nervous system (CNS). Environmental estrogens have also been shown to effect the body’s immune system.

Studies have found strong links with exposure to excessive levels of estrogen in males with penis abnormalities, lower libido, congenital anomalies, failure of the testes to descend and testicular cancer, reduced penis size and increased embryo mortality.

What is most concerning regarding control of these chemicals is that there are no indications given or regulations set regarding the minimal age at which they should be used or exposed to them. Increasingly, pregnant mothers, infants, pre-pubescent and pubescent children are being exposed to a large number of products containing these chemicals, with no research to show that exposure is safe during these critical periods of development.

Equally strong is the evidence that these same chemicals can cause some of the most common cancers: prostate and testicular cancer in men and breast cancer in women. One of the most troubling is their association with breast cancer. Breast cancer is the major cancer affecting women in the Western world and one of the most disturbing and well documented current trends is the alarming increase in breast cancer incidence over the past few decades. Fifty years ago the risk rate was one woman in 20; today it is one in 8 and approximately two-thirds of breast tumors are estrogen receptive, and environmental estrogens like parabens, phthalates and BPA are known to bind to estrogen receptors. Estrogen-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer, are known to be highly responsive to estrogens for growth. Even more disturbing is the increase in numbers of young girls developing breast cancer.

 

https://www.drdingle.com/collections/book-sales/products/dangerous-beauty-1

 

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Mothers BPA levels linked with birth defects.

Mothers BPA levels linked with birth defects.

Evidence from animal studies shows that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in females and males. In females exposure during early gestation, a critical period for reproductive development, is of particular concern. The Anogenital distance (AGD) is a sensitive biomarker of the fetal hormonal balance and a measure of reproductive toxicity in animal studies. In some studies, the daughters of BPA-exposed dams have shorter AGD than controls.

The results of this study showed BPA was detectable in 94% of women. In analysis of the 381 eligible subjects, maternal BPA concentration was inversely associated with infant AGD-AC

In support of animal studies this human study shows that BPA may have toxic effects on the female reproductive system in humans, as it does in animal models. Higher first-trimester BPA exposure was associated with significantly shorter AGD in daughters, suggesting that BPA may alter the hormonal environment of the female fetus.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic chemical widely used in consumer products, including food and drink containers, thermal receipts, medical equipment, and other plastic products. BPA is detectable in over 90% of the population in the United States, and may act on the endocrine system in numerous ways, including binding to and activating numerous nuclear and membrane endocrine receptors, and stimulating changes in estrogen, androgen, progesterone, and thyroid hormone activity.

Dozens of studies in humans have examined BPA exposure in relation to a wide range of health end points, including reproductive, perinatal, and pediatric outcomes. Many animal studies and in vitro studies show that many tissues and organ systems (including the mammary gland, prostate gland, adipose tissue, reproductive system, and brain) are sensitive to BPA. In animal and human studies, BPA can cross the placenta to enter fetal circulation. Because fetal development is a period of rapid cell proliferation and differentiation, tissue development, and organ growth, prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals such as BPA may be of particular concern.

source

https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp875/

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Europe says BPA (bisphenol A) is an endocrine disruptor and needs to be regulated more heavily

Europe says BPA (bisphenol A) is an endocrine disruptor and needs to be regulated more heavily

BPA has received a lot of media attention over the last decade, primarily the effects of this chemical on our reproductive health and infants.

This week the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) has classified bisphenol A, a chemical found in many common plastic products, as an endocrine disruptor and a ‘substance of very high concern’ due to its “probable serious effects to human health which give rise to an equivalent level of concern to carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic to reproduction substances”.

France banned BPA in baby bottles in 2010 and in food containers in 2012. The new European classification for BPA follows a proposal by the French food security agency (ANSES) from February this year. ECHA’s member state committee, made up of representatives from all 28 EU countries, agreed the change unanimously on 16 June.

But nothing in Australia?

Despite its widely known health effects BPA is still used in a variety of consumer products containing epoxy resins, polyester-styrene, and polycarbonate plastics. It is added to various plastics in many different consumer products including plastic bottles while epoxy resins are used as protective coatings for metal food and beverage cans. It is found in every can and most plastic bottles unless they are labelled BPA free. Bisphenol A is extensively used in the food-packaging industry so even food take away wrappers may be contaminated with BPA. It is also found in thermal paper for receipts and fax, however, human exposure occurs mainly from the direct contact of food with Bisphenol A containing plastics. Other exposure routes that are of particular concern are Bisphenol A leaching from babies’ feeding bottles, and Bisphenol A BPA leaching from dental fillings and sealants. In one study BPA was detected in 15 conventional samples, including dish and laundry detergent, tub and tile cleaner, soaps, lotions, shampoo, conditioner, shaving cream, nail polish, and sunscreen. Overall, human exposure to BPA is frequent and widespread, and more than 90% of individuals have detectable amounts of BPA in urine as reported by studies around the world. In a study in the USA BPA was found in 92.6% of urine samples from 2,517 people across the country.

BPA was first reported to impact the reproductive system of female rats in the 1930s. Since then there have been hundreds of published studies showing BPA effects in animals even at very low levels (μg/kg/d) and at levels we would normally be exposed to on a daily basis. It appears that these low levels may even be more of problem on health that much higher levels.

I have written extensively on this in my new book Dangerous Beauty

https://www.drdingle.com/products/dangerous-beauty-pre-release

Read more →

Europe says BPA (bisphenol A) is an endocrine disruptor and needs to be regulated more heavily

Europe says BPA (bisphenol A) is an endocrine disruptor and needs to be regulated more heavily

BPA has received a lot of media attention over the last decade, primarily the effects of this chemical on our reproductive health and infants.

This week the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) has classified bisphenol A, a chemical found in many common plastic products, as an endocrine disruptor and a ‘substance of very high concern’ due to its “probable serious effects to human health which give rise to an equivalent level of concern to carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic to reproduction substances”.

France banned BPA in baby bottles in 2010 and in food containers in 2012. The new European classification for BPA follows a proposal by the French food security agency (ANSES) from February this year. ECHA’s member state committee, made up of representatives from all 28 EU countries, agreed the change unanimously on 16 June.

But nothing in Australia?

Despite its widely known health effects BPA is still used in a variety of consumer products containing epoxy resins, polyester-styrene, and polycarbonate plastics. It is added to various plastics in many different consumer products including plastic bottles while epoxy resins are used as protective coatings for metal food and beverage cans. It is found in every can and most plastic bottles unless they are labelled BPA free. Bisphenol A is extensively used in the food-packaging industry so even food take away wrappers may be contaminated with BPA. It is also found in thermal paper for receipts and fax, however, human exposure occurs mainly from the direct contact of food with Bisphenol A containing plastics. Other exposure routes that are of particular concern are Bisphenol A leaching from babies’ feeding bottles, and Bisphenol A BPA leaching from dental fillings and sealants. In one study BPA was detected in 15 conventional samples, including dish and laundry detergent, tub and tile cleaner, soaps, lotions, shampoo, conditioner, shaving cream, nail polish, and sunscreen. Overall, human exposure to BPA is frequent and widespread, and more than 90% of individuals have detectable amounts of BPA in urine as reported by studies around the world. In a study in the USA BPA was found in 92.6% of urine samples from 2,517 people across the country.

BPA was first reported to impact the reproductive system of female rats in the 1930s. Since then there have been hundreds of published studies showing BPA effects in animals even at very low levels (μg/kg/d) and at levels we would normally be exposed to on a daily basis. It appears that these low levels may even be more of problem on health that much higher levels.

I have written extensively on this in my new book Dangerous Beauty

https://www.drdingle.com/products/dangerous-beauty-pre-release

Read more →

BPA linked with boys memory.

BPA linked with boys memory.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production-volume chemical that is used to produce polycarbonate plastics and resins used in some food can linings and other consumer products around the home and everyone is exposed predominantly from their diet.
There is growing evidence that prenatal BPA exposure increases the risk of neurobehavioral disorders in children. Some experimental studies in rodents suggest that prenatal BPA exposure is associated with behavior problems and that these effects may be sex-specific.
Prenatal exposure to BPA may increase the risk of neurobehavioral disorders by affecting thyroid or gonadal hormones or neurotransmitter systems, which are both necessary for proper brain development.
BPA may also affect the production or metabolism of gonadal hormones, which are an important determinant of sexually dimorphic brain development; thus, BPA may differentially affect neurodevelopment in males and females.
Several epidemiological studies have reported that maternal urinary BPA concentration during pregnancy is associated with adverse behavioral outcomes. In addition, some studies have reported that child sex modifies the association between BPA and neurobehavior. Studies in animals also show that gestational BPA exposure may affect specific aspects of cognition, such as memory and learning.
In this study increasing BPA concentrations in the mother at the birth of the child was associated with lower memory ability at 3 years of age but only in boys.

source
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP984
Associations of Prenatal Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations with Child Behaviors and Cognitive Abilities
https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp984/

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BPA linked with obesity in children (again)

BPA linked with obesity in children (again)

Another study adds to evidence that environmental chemicals can contribute to obesity. The study examined prenatal and early childhood exposure to BPA and found children at 7 years of age put on significant more weight if there mother was exposed to BPA. However, the researchers did not see an association between body fat and BPA levels in the children at ages three or five. The researchers suggest that this may be a time of heightened vulnerability to the chemical.

The results of this study suggest that prenatal BPA exposure may contribute to developmental origins of adiposity and findings are consistent with several prior studies, raising concern about the pervasiveness of BPA. Other human studies have found a similar link between BPA exposure and signs of child obesity. BPA has been shown to alter the body’s metabolism, increasing weight gain and making it difficult to lose weight. In a study of 1,326 children, girls between ages 9 and 12 with high BPA levels had double the risk of being obese than girls with low BPA levels, validating previous animal and human studies. The chemical can alter the body’s metabolism and make it harder to lose weight. Girls with high levels of BPA, two micrograms per litre or more, were twice as likely to be obese as girls with lower levels of BPA in the same age group. Girls with very high levels of BPA, more than 10 micrograms per litre, were five times more likely to be obese, the study showed.

Animal studies have found prenatal BPA exposure linked to offspring obesity. When pregnant rats are exposed to BPA it increased the fat mass in offspring, even later in life. In animal experiments, a mother’s exposure to BPA is produced the same outcomes that we see in humans born light at birth: an increase in abdominal fat and glucose intolerance. However, BPA affects rodent fat cells at very low doses, 1,000 times below the dose that regulatory agencies presume causes no effect in humans.

BPA, a common plastic additive, can leach out of can linings and into the food and studies show that just about everyone has traces of the chemical in their body. Ninety-four percent of the women in this study had BPA in their urine.

http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp205/

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Reducing toxic chemical exposure reduces the risk of diabetes

Reducing toxic chemical exposure reduces the risk of diabetes

New research suggests that a 25% reduction in exposure to just 4 chemicals commonly found in the home would reduce diabetes cases by around 13% which could save billions of dollars in annual health costs.
 
Increasing evidence suggests that synthetic chemicals commonly found in the environment contribute to metabolic disorders, especially obesity and diabetes. Previous publications have associated prevalent diabetes with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chlorinated pesticides, phthalates and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Separate studies found similar connections between diabetes and exposure to DDT, PCBs and perfluoroalkyl.

In this study of 1,016 participants they found significant connections between the four chemicals investigated and a number of different diseases and found reduced exposure to all four chemicals would lead to a likely reduction 13% in diabetes cases. This study confirms substantial contribution, especially of mixtures of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, to adult type 2 diabetes, and large annual costs of medical care. A previous reported a significant positive relationship between phthalates in the blood and lowered insulin secretion, increased insulin resistance or both.
    
While this study supports efforts to reduce chemical exposures to reduce the burden and costs of diabetes there are many other disease states including cardiovascular disease and cancer that would also likely be reduced.

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Toxic chemicals cause weight gain

Toxic chemicals cause weight gain

Exposure to “obesogenic” chemicals has an important role in the obesity and diabetes pandemic. Studies dating back to the 1970s have shown that low-dose chemical exposures were associated with weight gain in experimental animals. Since then, a growing number of studies show links between toxins and weight gain, obesity and diabetes. Known or suspected culprits behind negative epigenetic changes include toxins such as heavy metals, pesticides, plastic compounds including BPA, diesel exhaust, tobacco smoke, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hormones, radioactivity, viruses, bacteria and endocrine disrupting chemicals.

The main role of fat cells is to store energy and release it when needed. Scientists now know that fat tissue acts as an endocrine (hormone) organ, releasing hormones related to appetite and metabolism. Research to date suggests that different obesogenic compounds may have different mechanisms of action, some affecting the number of fat cells, others the size of fat cells, and still others the hormones that influence appetite, satiety, food preferences, and energy metabolism. Another mechanism through which these chemical obesogens can contribute to weight gain is through their impact on the gut microbiome, linking gut ecology and environmental chemicals to obesity and diabetes.

BPA, or bisphenol-A, a chemical found in everything from plastic bottles to metal food containers, may be partly to blame for our excess weight. BPA has been shown to alter the body’s metabolism, increasing weight gain and making it difficult to lose weight. In a study of 1,326 children, girls between ages 9 and 12 with high BPA levels had double the risk of being obese than girls with low BPA levels, validating previous animal and human studies. The chemical can alter the body’s metabolism and make it harder to lose weight. Girls with high levels of BPA, two micrograms per litre or more, were twice as likely to be obese as girls with lower levels of BPA in the same age group. Girls with very high levels of BPA, more than 10 micrograms per litre, were five times more likely to be obese, the study showed. In animal experiments, a mother’s exposure to BPA is producing the same outcomes that we see in humans born light at birth: an increase in abdominal fat and glucose intolerance. BPA affected rodent fat cells at very low doses, 1,000 times below the dose that regulatory agencies presume causes no effect in humans.

A growing body of evidence shows that the use of certain pesticides may also be associated with weight gain and diabetes risk. In animal experiments, mice fed high-fat diets gained about 30% more weight and had higher blood sugar than other mice eating the same high-fat diets when they also ingested doses of a brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), which is used in building materials and insulation. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ubiquitous chemical, used in non-stick cookware, Gore-Tex™ waterproof clothing, Scotchgard™ stain repellent on carpeting and mattresses and is a potential endocrine disruptor. Researchers gave pregnant mice PFOA during pregnancy and when the offspring reached adulthood, they became obese, reaching significantly higher weight levels than controls. Phthalates are plasticizers that have been related to obesity in humans and occur in many PVC items as well as in scented items such as air fresheners, laundry products, and personal care products, and many plastics.
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