Dr Dingle's Blog / antacid

The healing power of raw cabbage

The healing power of raw cabbage

Another reason to add some of the cabbage family to your daily diet, preferably raw is because of their gut healing properties and how they promote gut health through the gut microbiome. The Brassica family including cabbage, broccoli, brussel sprouts, kale, arugula (rocket), bok choy, cauliflower, collard greens, radish, turnip and others have been recognized for their gut healing and gut health properties for hundreds of years and modern epidemiologic studies have shown a frequent consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with lower risk of cancer, especially cancers of the digestive tract, bladder, breast, prostate, and lung. However, only now are we recognizing that many of these benefits are mediated through the microbiome and that their frequent consumption alters the composition of the microbiome.

Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates a precursor to the Isothiocyanates (ITC), which exhibit powerful biological functions in fighting cancers, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases and gut healing. The Isothiocyanates are a by product of specific plant enzymes (myrosinase) active during chewing or crushing when broccoli is consumed raw or lightly steamed, however, like all enzymes myrosinase is deactivated by cooking and ingestion of cooked broccoli typically provides only about one tenth the amount of isothiocyanates as that from raw broccoli. So to maximize the gut healing, gut health and overall benefits of these foods they are best eaten raw or just lightly steamed.

Instead when cooked cruciferous vegetables are consumed, gut bacteria are mainly responsible for ITC production in the gut. This is highlighted after taking oral antibiotics, the ITCs availability and uptake decreases after eating cooked cruciferous vegetable. It also appears that there is considerable difference in the ability of individuals, due to individual differences in gut microbial community, to produce the isothiocyanates. Although, the gut communitys ability is altered over just 4 days. In one study feeding raw or cooked broccoli for four days or longer both changed the microbiota composition and caused a greater production of isothiocyanates. Interestingly, a three-day withdrawal from broccoli reversed the increased microbial metabolites suggesting that the microbiota requires four or more days of broccoli consumption and is reversible.

The lactic acid bacteria appear to have myrosinase-like activity and the fermented Brassica food products, such as sauerkraut and kimchi, are particularly rich in Lactobacillus, and a diet rich in Brassica may promote Lactobacillus growth in the colon.

 

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Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and increased illness

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and increased illness

The human stomach, when healthy, is not a suitable host for micro-organisms, but in pathological conditions such as gastritis, when gastric acid secretion is impaired, microbial overgrowth can be observed. The use of gastric acid suppression drugs has been shown to have profound effects on the microbiome.[1] Acid-blocking drugs, or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) used for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) to reduce gastric acid secretion, are among the most commonly prescribed medications in the world with approximately 6%–15% of the general population receiving acid suppression therapy.[2] Once initiated, they are often used for long periods of time without question,[3] despite the guidelines saying “for short term use only.”

PPIs increase the stomach pH to make it less acidic,[4] which is what they are designed to do, and as a result, change the composition of the intestinal microbiota[5] and impact the pH of the rest of the gut. They are associated with a decrease in small bowel beneficial Bifidobacteria and increase in the toxic gram-negative bacteria, as well as being associated with a significant decline in microbial diversity within seven days of beginning therapy.[6]

PPIs dramatically increase the risk of stomach bacterial overgrowth (SBO) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), with increased risk of these bacteria getting into the blood[7] and the potentially fatal infection, Clostridium difficile.[8] Bifidobacteriaceae, important and beneficial bacteria of human gastrointestinal microbiota, can over-colonise the stomach of people with low stomach acid. Bifidobacteriaceae species, typically found in the oral cavity, readily colonise the low acid stomach[9] and become good bacteria but in the wrong place as a result of altered pH.

Proton pump inhibitors also promote progression of both alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice and contribute to the increasing incidence of chronic liver disease as a result of dysbiosis.[10] The list of side effects for PPIs is extensive, serious and even life-threatening and they are all mediated through the gut.

A growing number of studies are showing connections between autoimmune conditions linked with dysbiosis, including antibiotics and the use of protein pump inhibitors (PPIs) in controlling gastric reflux.[11] The use of PPIs can potentially create far greater problems in the long run.

 

[1] Krezalek et al., 2016; Mackenzie et al., 2017.

[2] Johansen et al., 2014.

[3] Reimer and Bytzer, 2009.

[4] O’May et al., 2005.

[5] Bajaj et al., 2014; Imhann et al., 2016; Jackson et al., 2016.

[6] Seto et al., 2014; Wallace et al., 2011.

[7] Choung et al., 2011.

[8] Lo and Chan, 2013; Janarthanan et al., 2012.

[9] Mattarelli, 2014.

[10] Llorente et al., 2017; Reveles et al., 2017.

[11] Andresson et al., 2016.

Read more →

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and increased illness

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and increased illness

The human stomach, when healthy, is not a suitable host for micro-organisms, but in pathological conditions such as gastritis, when gastric acid secretion is impaired, microbial overgrowth can be observed. The use of gastric acid suppression drugs has been shown to have profound effects on the microbiome.[1] Acid-blocking drugs, or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) used for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) to reduce gastric acid secretion, are among the most commonly prescribed medications in the world with approximately 6%–15% of the general population receiving acid suppression therapy.[2] Once initiated, they are often used for long periods of time without question,[3] despite the guidelines saying “for short term use only.”

PPIs increase the stomach pH to make it less acidic,[4] which is what they are designed to do, and as a result, change the composition of the intestinal microbiota[5] and impact the pH of the rest of the gut. They are associated with a decrease in small bowel beneficial Bifidobacteria and increase in the toxic gram-negative bacteria, as well as being associated with a significant decline in microbial diversity within seven days of beginning therapy.[6]

PPIs dramatically increase the risk of stomach bacterial overgrowth (SBO) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), with increased risk of these bacteria getting into the blood[7] and the potentially fatal infection, Clostridium difficile.[8] Bifidobacteriaceae, important and beneficial bacteria of human gastrointestinal microbiota, can over-colonise the stomach of people with low stomach acid. Bifidobacteriaceae species, typically found in the oral cavity, readily colonise the low acid stomach[9] and become good bacteria but in the wrong place as a result of altered pH.

Proton pump inhibitors also promote progression of both alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice and contribute to the increasing incidence of chronic liver disease as a result of dysbiosis.[10] The list of side effects for PPIs is extensive, serious and even life-threatening and they are all mediated through the gut.

A growing number of studies are showing connections between autoimmune conditions linked with dysbiosis, including antibiotics and the use of protein pump inhibitors (PPIs) in controlling gastric reflux.[11] The use of PPIs can potentially create far greater problems in the long run.

 

[1] Krezalek et al., 2016; Mackenzie et al., 2017.

[2] Johansen et al., 2014.

[3] Reimer and Bytzer, 2009.

[4] O’May et al., 2005.

[5] Bajaj et al., 2014; Imhann et al., 2016; Jackson et al., 2016.

[6] Seto et al., 2014; Wallace et al., 2011.

[7] Choung et al., 2011.

[8] Lo and Chan, 2013; Janarthanan et al., 2012.

[9] Mattarelli, 2014.

[10] Llorente et al., 2017; Reveles et al., 2017.

[11] Andresson et al., 2016.

Read more →