The most important aspect of dysbiosis is that a loss of total microbial diversity which represents the first link in the chain of events leading to the development of local and body wide inflammation. Multiple human conditions have been associated with dysbiosis, including autoimmune and auto inflammatory disorders, such as allergies, cardio vascular, metabolic disorders (diabetes, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), various cancers and inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn's and ulcerative colitis (UC), celiac disease, and neurological disorders including autism.
Once inflammation starts it appears that these opportunistic microorganisms are able to exploit the inflamed environment and expand their numbers to become an even bigger problem.
There appear to be three types of dysbiosis that more often than not, occur together to create the problem. These include (i) loss of beneficial microbial organisms perhaps through the use of antibiotics, (ii) expansion of pathobionts or potentially harmful microorganisms as a result of too much processed foods and (iii) loss of overall microbial diversity. It is likely that dysbiosis encompasses all three of these manifestations at the same time to influence disease.
The challenge is that the Dysbiotic microbial ecosystem can become resilient over time and may become hard to alter. In one study while dieting rapidly reversed the metabolic problems associated with a high fat diet, the dysbiosis in mice after a 4-week high fat diet persisted up to 21 weeks after returning to normal chow diet. It did however change after 21 weeks.
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